Psychological patterns in pre-graduate students in Tirupati district


  • Ashok Kumar Reddy Kapu Department of Community Medicine, Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Chittoor, Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India
  • Venkata Prasad Upadrasta Model Rural Health Research Unit, ICMR-DHR, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India, Chandragiri, Tirupati district, Andhra Pradesh, India
  • Bharathi Sibbala Department of Psychiatry, Sri Venkateswara Medica College, Tirupati, Tirupati district, Andhra Pradesh, India
  • Hemalatha Bathina Department of Physiology, JIPMER, Puducherry, India
  • Renuka Sadasivuni Model Rural Health Research Unit, ICMR-DHR, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India, Chandragiri, Tirupati district, Andhra Pradesh, India
  • Satyendra Nath Ponna Cardiovascular Health Officer-Telangana, World Health Organization, India
  • J. J. Babu Geddam Clinical Epidemiology Division, ICMR-National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, Telangana, India



Adolescents, Psychological morbidities, Quality of life


Background: Adolescent age can be a stressful experience for young people with a wide range of concerns. Comprehensive studies on psychological patterns among pre-graduate students in India are meagre. Therefore, this study aimed to assess psychological morbidities and quality of life in them.

Methods: The study recruited 567 students aged 15-18 years, who pursued pre-graduate courses at government (300) and private (267) colleges in and around Tirupati and Chandragiri, Andhra Pradesh, India. Information was collected about their physical and psychological health, substance abuse and usage of electronic gadgets. The levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and sleeplessness were assessed.

Results: A significant association was observed in the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression among government and private college students at levels of 1%, 10% and 5%, respectively. Higher levels of depression were observed in 44.8% of students; depression was high in girls and government college students. Often, girls experience higher levels of stress leading to psychological illnesses than boys due to their inability to share their feelings and fears among family members. The proportion of poor family health indicators was significantly high in students with moderately low levels of anxiety. Poor sleep had decreased as the depression worsened from borderline to higher levels in boys and decreased even with mild mood disturbances in girls.

Conclusions: Management strategies at personal, institutional and social levels are to be developed after understanding the risk factors of psychological morbidities in students.


Agarwal A, Dixit V. The role of meditation on mindful awareness and life satisfaction of adolescents. Journal of Psychosocial Research. 2017;12(1):59

Sahoo S, Khess CR. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among young male adults in India: a dimensional and categorical diagnoses-based study. The Journal of nervous and mental disease. 2010;198(12):901-4.

WHO. Adolescent mental health. Geneva: World Health Organization; Available at: adolescent-mental-health. Accessed on 27 September 2021.

World Health Organization. Mental health: a state of well-being. Geneva: World Health Organization; Available at: media/en/76.pdf. Accessed on 27 September 2021.

Singh K, Junnarkar M, Sharma S. Anxiety, stress, depression, and psychosocial functioning of Indian adolescents. Indian journal of psychiatry. 2015;57(4):367.

Suicide worldwide in 2019: global health estimates. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2021. Available at: 10665/341728/9789240026643-eng.pdf? sequence=1. Accessed on 02 May 2024.

Moitra P, Madan J, Shaikh NI. Eating habits and sleep patterns of adolescents with depression symptoms in Mumbai, India. Maternal & child nutrition. 2020;16:e12998

Shahid A, Wilkinson K, Marcu S, Shapiro CM. Perceived stress questionnaire (PSQ). InSTOP, THAT and One Hundred Other Sleep Scales. Springer, New York, NY; 2011: 273-274.

Great Plains Health Site. Anxiety information sheet. Great Plains: Great Plains Health Site; Available at: Accessed on 27 September 2021.

Indiana State Medical Association. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) information sheet. Indiana: Indiana State Medical Association; Available at: Accessed on 27 September 2021.

Carole Smyth MS. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2012;29(8):1001-6.

Epstein NB, Baldwin LM, Bishop DS. FAD: Family Assessment Device. Brown University/ Butler Hospital Family Research Program; 1982. Available at: https://isucounselingresources2017. assessment_device.pdf. Accessed on 02 May 2024.

Deb S, Strodl E, Sun J. Academic-related stress among private secondary school students in India. Asian Education and Development Studies. 2014;3(2):118-34.

Raj S, Kanagasabapathy S. A Cross-Sectional Study on Physical Activity and Perceived Stress among School Going Adolescents. International Journal of Research and Review. 2020;7(2):467-73.

Porges SW. Cardiac vagal tone: a physiological index of stress. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 1995;19(2):225-33.

McEwen BS. The neurobiology of stress: from serendipity to clinical relevance. Brain research. 2000;886(1-2):172-89.

Reddy JK, Menon K, Thattil A. Understanding academic stress among adolescents. Artha Journal of Social Sciences. 2017;16(1):39-52.

American College Health Association. American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II: Reference group executive summary fall 2009. Linthicum, MD: American College Health Association; 2009.

Busari AO. Evaluating the relationship between gender, age, depression and academic performance among adolescents. Scholarly Journal of Education. 2012;1(1):6-12.

Bennett TH, Holloway KR. Drug misuse among university students in the UK: Implications for prevention. Substance Use Misuse. 2014;49(4):448-55.

King KA, Vidourek RA, Singh A. Condoms, sex, and sexually transmitted diseases: Exploring sexual health issues among Asian-Indian college students. Sexuality & culture. 2014;18(3):649-63.

Grant KE, Compas BE, Stuhlmacher AF, Thurm AE, McMahon SD, Halpert JA. Stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology: moving from markers to mechanisms of risk. Psychological bulletin. 2003;129(3):447.

Jayashree K, Mithra PP, Nair MK, Unnikrishnan B, Pai K. Depression and anxiety disorders among school going adolescents in an urban area of South India. Indian J Community Med. 2018;43:S28 32.

Nair MK, Paul MK, John R. Prevalence of depression among adolescents. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2004;71(6):523-4.

Basker M, Moses PD, Russell S, Russell PS. The psychometric properties of Beck Depression Inventory for adolescent depression in a primary-care paediatric setting in India. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2007;1:8-15.

Mohanraj R, Subbaiah K. Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms among Urban Adolescents of South India. Journal of Indian Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health. 2010;6(2):33-43.

Russell PS, Basker M, Russell S, Moses PD, Nair MK, Minju KA. Comparison of a self-rated and a clinician-rated measure for identifying depression among adolescents in a primary-care setting. Indian J Pediatr. 2012;79:45-51.

Jayanthi P, Thirunavukarasu M, Rajkumar R. Academic stress and depression among adolescents: A cross-sectional study. Indian pediatrics. 2015;52(3):217-9.

Jha KK, Singh SK, Nirala SK, Kumar C, Kumar P, Aggrawal N. Prevalence of depression among school-going adolescents in an urban area of Bihar, India. Indian J Psychol Med. 2017;39:287-92.

Grover S, Raju VV, Sharma A, Shah R. Depression in children and adolescents: A review of Indian studies. Indian journal of psychological medicine. 2019;41(3):216-27.

Skevington SM, Dehner S, Gillison FB, McGrath EJ, Lovell CR. How appropriate is the WHOQOL-BREF for assessing the quality of life of adolescents? Psychology & health. 2014;29(3):297-317.

Shochat T, Cohen-Zion M, Tzischinsky O. Functional consequences of inadequate sleep in adolescents: a systematic review. Sleep medicine reviews. 2014;18(1):75-87.




How to Cite

Kapu, A. K. R., Upadrasta, V. P., Sibbala, B., Bathina, H., Sadasivuni, R., Ponna, S. N., & Babu Geddam, J. J. (2024). Psychological patterns in pre-graduate students in Tirupati district. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 11(7), 2824–2833.



Original Research Articles