Case control study for risk factors associated with oral cancer in central India


  • Dadasaheb Dhage Department of Community Medicine, SVNGMC, Yawatmal, Maharashtra
  • Sonali Patil Department of Community Medicine, GMC, Nagpur, Maharashtra
  • Uday Narlwar Department of Community Medicine, GMC, Nagpur, Maharashtra
  • Suresh Ughade Department of Community Medicine, GMC, Nagpur, Maharashtra
  • Hemant Adikane Department of Community Medicine, GMC, Nagpur, Maharashtra



Oral cancer, Smoking, Tobacco, Alcohol, Central India, Case control study


Background: Oral cancer is higher prevalent condition in Asian countries. In India, due to higher proportion of population consuming tobacco in either chewing or smoking and alcohol consumption.

Methods: Present matched case control study was carried out in regional cancer institute in central India. The study consists of a total 124 cases and 124 controls. Cases were newly diagnosed patients of oral cancer confirmed by histopathological examination.

Results: For cases, the  mean age (years) was 47.62, the range being 23-83 years while that of controls was  47.89 years, the range being 24-84 years. Majority were males (83.88%). Majority of cases (79.04%) were past chewers who had OR 2.61. Maximum number of cases (19.36%) were past smokers and maximum number of controls (12.09%) were current smokers who had OR 4.54. Maximum number of cases (30.64%) were former drinker and maximum number of controls (8.87%) were current drinker who had OR 2.97.

Conclusions: In summary, oral cancer occurs more commonly in middle aged males. The statistical data of this study provide strong evidence that tobacco chewing, smoking and alcohol could be in a straight line responsible for developing oral cancer in central India. 


Rajappa SA, Shaji J. A Clinical Study of Suppurative Keratitis. Int J Biomed Res. 2015;6(11):869–73.

Radhakrishnan R, Shrestha B, Bajracharya D. Oral Cancer - An Overview, Oral Cancer. In: Kalu U. E. Ogbureke, editor. 2012: 47-64.

Petti S, Masood M, Scully C. The magnitude of tobacco smoking-betel quid chewing-alcohol drinking interaction effect on oral cancer in South-East Asia. A meta-analysis of observational studies. PLoS One. 2013;8(11):1–9.

Pawar HJ, Dhumale GB, Singh KK. Relationship between Socio-Demographic Factors and Oral Cancer in Rural Area of Maharashtra state, India : Case Control Study. Indian J Basic Appl Med Res. 2012;1(4):324–31.

MOHFW. Report on tobacco control in India. New Delhi: 2004: 1-81.

Gupta P. Case- Control Study Among Oral And Lung Cancer Patients Of Uttar Pradesh, 2007.

Varshitha A. Prevalence of Oral Cancer in India. J Pharm Sci Res. 2015;7(10):845–8.

Patil SN, Naik SB, Kamble SD, Khan MA, Kokane V, Motghare P. An Assessment of various smoking & smokeless tobacco related habits and their associated oral mucosal lesions within Nagpur district populations. IOSR J Dent Med Sci. 2013;8(3):39–44.

Ajit Mishra, Savita Ghom, Anshul Khandelwal, Manish Kanungo, Pranoti Pradhan P, Gupta. Prevalence of Oral Cancer in Chhattisgarh-An Epidemiological study. Chhattisgarh J Heal Sci. 2013;1(1):1–4.

Shenoi R, Devrukhkar V, Chaudhuri, Sharma BK, Sapre SB, Chikhale A. Demographic and clinical profile of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients: A retrospective study. Indian J Cancer. 2012;49(1):21–6.

Madani A, Bhaduri D, Dikshit M. Risk for oral cancer associated to smoking, smokeless and oral dip products. Indian J Public Health. 2012;56(1):57–60.

Mahapatra S, Kamath R, Shetty BK, Binu VS. Risk of oral cancer associated with gutka and other tobacco products: a hospital-based case-control study. J Cancer Res Ther. 2015;11(1):199–203.

World Health Organization. WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2015. Country Profile: India. 2015.

Maleki D, Ghojazadeh M, Mahmoudi SS, Mahmoudi SM, Pournaghi-Azar F, Torab A, et al. Epidemiology of oral cancer in Iran: A systematic review. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev. 2015;16(13):5427–32.

Krishnan S, Sivaram S, Anderson BO, Basu P, Belinson JL, Bhatla N, et al. Using implementation science to advance cancer prevention in India. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev. 2015;16(9):3639–44.

Park K. Park’s Textbook of Preventive And Social Medicine. 2015: 1-936.

WHO. WHO | The objectives of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme (ORH) [Internet]. Oral Health. 2005. Available at

oral_health/objectives/en/. Accessed on 05 July 2015.

WHO. Tokyo Declaration on Dental Care and Oral Health for Healthy Longevity. World Congress 2015. 2015.

Shrivastav S. Nagpur oral cancer capital of the world - Times of India [Internet]. TOI. 2016: 1–4. Available from: city/nagpur/Nagpur-oral-cancer-capital-of-the-world/articleshow/52525048.cms

Wasnik KS, Ughade SN, Zodpey SP, Ingole DL. Tobacco consumption practices and risk of oro-pharyngeal cancer: a case-control study in Central India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1998;29(4):827–34.

Mishra A, Meherotra R. Head and neck cancer: global burden and regional trends in India. Asian Pacific J cancer Prev. 2014;15(2):537–50.

Faraj A, Shammari A, Khalil I, Ibrahim AL, Ibrahim A, Merza RF, et al. Effects of Tobacco Smoking on the Dorsum of the Tongue and Buccal Epithelium. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev. 2016;17(1):4713–8.

Anantharaman D, Chabrier A, Gaborieau V, Franceschi S, Herrero R, Rajkumar T, et al. Genetic variants in nicotine addiction and alcohol metabolism genes, oral cancer risk and the propensity to smoke and drink alcohol: A replication study in India. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):1–7.

Thorat RV, Panse NS, Budukh AM, Dinshaw KA, Nene BM, Jayant K. Prevalence of tobacco use and tobacco-dependent cancers in males in the rural cancer registry population at Barshi, India. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev. 2009;10(6):1167–70.

Elango JK, Gangadharan P, Sumithra S, Kuriakose M. Trends of head and neck cancers in urban and rural India. Asian Pacific J cancer Prev. 2006;7(1):108–12.

Balaram P, Sridhar H, Rajkumar T, Vaccarella S, Herrero R, Nandakumar A, et al. Oral cancer in Southern India: The influence of smoking, drinking, paan-chewing and oral hygiene. Int J Cancer. 2002;98(3):440–5.

World Health Organization (WHO). Oral Health Surveys- Basic Method. World Health Organization. 2013: 1-137.




How to Cite

Dhage, D., Patil, S., Narlwar, U., Ughade, S., & Adikane, H. (2017). Case control study for risk factors associated with oral cancer in central India. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 4(4), 1022–1027.



Original Research Articles