Mental health dynamics among COVID-19 survivors: anxiety and depression in urban Nepal

Authors

  • Prabha Gautam Maternal and Neonatal Healthcare, One Heart Worldwide, Nepal

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240879

Keywords:

Maternal and Neonatal Healthcare, One Heart Worldwide, Nepal

Abstract

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted a profound impact on global mental health, with developing countries like Nepal facing exacerbated challenges. This study investigates the prevalence and determinants of anxiety and depression among COVID-19 survivors recognizing the pivotal role of socio-demographic and health-related factors in shaping mental health outcomes during the pandemic.

Methods: Employing an analytical cross-sectional design, the study engaged 150 COVID-19 survivors from Kathmandu's Urban Health Clinic. Participants were selected through systematic random sampling and data were collected via a combination of semi-structured and closed-ended questionnaires, incorporating the depression anxiety stress scale (DASS) 21. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, Fisher exact tests, and logistic regression to understand the associations and predictors of anxiety and depression among the survivors.

Results: The study revealed that a significant proportion of COVID-19 survivors experienced anxiety and depression at varying levels. 82% of the participants exhibited normal depression levels, while 18% reported symptoms ranging from mild to extremely severe. Anxiety was more prevalent, with 58% showing normal levels and 42% experiencing mild to extremely severe anxiety. Key predictors of depression included lack of access to COVID health services, while anxiety was significantly associated with residence type, overall health status during COVID-19, treatment type, and concerns about future waves of the pandemic.

Conclusions: The study emphasize the crucial need for accessible healthcare services and comprehensive mental health support. Policymakers and healthcare providers should integrate mental health services into post-COVID recovery plans, focusing on tailored interventions for survivors' needs.

References

Sun P, Lu X, Xu C, Sun W, Pan B. Understanding of COVID-19 based on current evidence. J Med Virol. 2020;92(6):548-51.

World Health Organization (WHO). Weekly epidemiological update on COVID-19. 2021. Available at: https://www.who.int/publications/ m/item/weekly-epidemiological-update-on-covid-19---30-november-2021. Accessed on 24 January 2024.

INSEC ONLINE. Update of November 30 Regarding COVID-19 Infection. 2020. Available at: https:// inseconline.org/en/news/update-of-november-30-regarding-covid-19-infection/. Accessed on 24 January 2024.

Menon V, Padhy SK. Mental health among COVID-19 survivors: Are we overlooking the biological links? Asian J Psychiatry. 2020;53:102217.

Xiao S, Luo D, Xiao Y. Survivors of COVID-19 are at high risk of posttraumatic stress disorder. Glob Health Res Policy. 2020;5(1):29.

Santomauro DF, Herrera AMM, Shadid J. Global prevalence and burden of depressive and anxiety disorders in 204 countries and territories in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The Lancet. 2021;398(10312):1700-12.

Kalueff AV, Tuohimaa P. Experimental modeling of anxiety and depression. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Warsz). 2004;64(4):439-48.

Adhanom Ghebreyesus T. Addressing mental health needs: an integral part of COVID‐19 response. World Psychiatry. 2020;19(2):129-30.

Mak IWC, Chu CM, Pan PC, Yiu MGC, Chan VL. Long-term psychiatric morbidities among SARS survivors. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2009;31(4):318-26.

Rogers JP, Chesney E, Oliver D, Pollak TA, McGuire P, Fusar-Poli P, et al. Psychiatric and neuropsychiatric presentations associated with severe coronavirus infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis with comparison to the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020;7(7):611-27.

Holmes EA, O’Connor RC, Perry VH, Tracey I, Wessely S, Arseneault L, et al. Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: a call for action for mental health science. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020;7(6):547-60.

Asim M, van Teijlingen E, Sathian B. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) and the risk of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A mental health concern in Nepal. Nepal J Epidemiol. 2020;10(2):841-4.

Mazza MG, De Lorenzo R, Conte C, Poletti S, Vai B, Bollettini I, et al. Anxiety and depression in COVID-19 survivors: Role of inflammatory and clinical predictors. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;89:594-600.

Wu C, Hu X, Song J, Yang D, Xu J, Cheng K, et al. Mental health status and related influencing factors of COVID-19 survivors in Wuhan, China. Clin Transl Med. 2020;10(2):e52.

World Health Organization (WHO). COVID-19 pandemic triggers 25% increase in prevalence of anxiety and depression worldwide. 2022. Available at: https://www.who.int/news/item/02-03-2022-covid-19-pandemic-triggers-25-increase-in-prevalence-of-anxiety-and-depression-worldwide. Accessed on 24 January 2024.

Risal A, Manandhar K, Linde M, Steiner TJ, Holen A. Anxiety and depression in Nepal: prevalence, comorbidity and associations. BMC Psychiatry. 2016;16(1):102.

Basnet S, Bhandari B, Gaire B, Sharma P, Shrestha RM. Depression, Stress and Anxiety among Residents of Nepal during COVID-19 Lockdown. J Adv Acad Res. 2021;8(1):53-62.

Lovibond PF, Lovibond SH. The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behav Res Ther. 1995;33(3):335-43.

Pandey A, Sharma C, Chapagain RH. Stress, Anxiety, Depression and Their Associated Factors among Health Care Workers During COVID -19 Pandemic in Nepal. 2020. Available at: http://elibrary.nhrc.gov.np:8080/handle/20.500.14356/1473. Accessed on 24 January 2024.

Sanghera J, Pattani N, Hashmi Y, Varley KF, Cheruvu MS, Bradley A, et al. The impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the mental health of healthcare workers in a hospital setting-A Systematic Review. J Occup Health. 2020;62(1):e12175.

Yang X, Yu Y, Xu J, Shu H, Xia J, Liu H, et al. Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study. Lancet Respir Med. 2020;8(5):475-81.

Hammen C. Risk Factors for Depression: An Autobiographical Review. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2018;14(1):1-28.

Choi EPH, Hui BPH, Wan EYF. Depression and Anxiety in Hong Kong during COVID-19. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(10):3740.

Li J, Yang Z, Qiu H, Wang Y, Jian L, Ji J, et al. Anxiety and depression among general population in China at the peak of the COVID‐19 epidemic. World Psychiatry. 2020;19(2):249-50.

Barbosa-Camacho FJ, Romero-Limón OM, Ibarrola-Peña JC. Depression, anxiety, and academic performance in COVID-19: a cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiatry. 2022;22(1):443.

Kong X, Zheng K, Tang M, Kong F, Zhou J, Diao L, et al. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Depression and Anxiety of Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19. MedRxiv. 2020;0043075.

Hu Y, Chen Y, Zheng Y, You C, Tan J, Hu L, et al. Factors related to mental health of inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;89:587-93.

Ma YF, Li W, Deng HB, Wang L, Wang Y, Wang PH, et al. Prevalence of depression and its association with quality of life in clinically stable patients with COVID-19. J Affect Disord. 2020;275:145-8.

Downloads

Published

2024-03-30

How to Cite

Gautam, P. (2024). Mental health dynamics among COVID-19 survivors: anxiety and depression in urban Nepal. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 11(4), 1468–1476. https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20240879

Issue

Section

Original Research Articles