Childhood asthma complications, management, and environmental triggers


  • Abdulghani A. Alzamzami Department of Pediatrics, Al Thager Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Seeta S. Alenezi College of Medicine, University of Hail, Hail, Saudi Arabia
  • Laila M. Saptan College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
  • Renad T. Alkaki Almadinah Primary Healthcare Center, Ministry of Health, Medina, Saudi Arabia
  • Shada M. Albaqami Al Matar Primary Healthcare Center, King Saud Hospital, Unayzah, Saudi Arabia
  • Rayan A. Karbouji Department of Pediatric Emergency, King Salman bin Abdulaziz Medical City, Medina, Saudi Arabia
  • Weam F. Daba Department of Pediatric Emergency, King Salman bin Abdulaziz Medical City, Medina, Saudi Arabia
  • Raed A. Alahmadi Department of Pediatric Emergency, King Salman bin Abdulaziz Medical City, Medina, Saudi Arabia
  • Ahmad M. Hafez Department of Pediatric Emergency, King Salman bin Abdulaziz Medical City, Medina, Saudi Arabia
  • Hussain A. Asiri Department of Respiratory Therapy, Muhayil General Hospital, Muhayil, Saudi Arabia
  • Nawaf H. Alhabshi Department of Family Medicine, King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia



Childhood asthma, Asthma complications, Asthma management, Environmental triggers, Pediatric respiratory health


Childhood asthma, which is a chronic respiratory condition, presents challenges in terms of its complications, management, and identification of environmental triggers. This review of existing literature explores the complexities surrounding asthma. It delves into complications, strategies for managing the condition, and the crucial role that environmental factors play in worsening it. Uncontrolled asthma in children has far-reaching consequences as it affects lung function, physical activity levels, and overall quality of life. Early recognition and addressing of these complications are essential to minimize long-term effects. The management of childhood asthma has evolved to focus on treatment plans, with corticosteroids being a key component. For cases, advanced therapeutic options like biologics are available. Indoor and outdoor environmental triggers have an impact on asthma exacerbations, making targeted preventive measures necessary. Education plays a role by providing caregivers and children with asthma action plans as well as proper inhaler technique guidance. Regular follow-up visits ensure assessment and adjustment of treatment plans while fostering a relationship between healthcare providers and families. Comprehensive care for childhood asthma involves an approach that includes pediatricians, pulmonologists, allergists, and respiratory therapists. The triad of interventions, environmental modifications, and educational strategies forms an encompassing framework for the management of asthma. This review highlights how crucial it is to tackle childhood asthma issues. By doing so, we can improve outcomes. Promote the overall well-being of children who are affected by this condition.


Trivedi M, Denton E. Asthma in Children and Adults-What Are the Differences and What Can They Tell us About Asthma? Front Pediatr. 2019;7:256.

Mazi A, Madani F, Alsulami E, Almutari A, Alamri R, Jahhaf J, et al. Uncontrolled Asthma Among Children and Its Association With Parents' Asthma Knowledge and Other Socioeconomic and Environmental Factors. Cureus. 2023;15(2):e35240.

Corlateanu A, Stratan I, Covantev S, Botnaru V, Corlateanu O, Siafakas N. Asthma and stroke: a narrative review. Asthma Res Pract. 2021;7(1):3.

Dharmage SC, Perret JL, Custovic A. Epidemiology of Asthma in Children and Adults. Front Pediatr. 2019;7:246.

Gupta A, Bhat G, Pianosi P. What is New in the Management of Childhood Asthma? Indian J Pediatr. 2018;85(9):773-81.

Martin J, Townshend J, Brodlie M. Diagnosis and management of asthma in children. BMJ Paediatr Open. 2022;6(1).

Darveaux J, Busse WW. Biologics in asthma--the next step toward personalized treatment. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015;3(2):152-60.

McCracken JL, Tripple JW, Calhoun WJ. Biologic therapy in the management of asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;16(4):375-82.

Louisias M, Ramadan A, Naja AS, Phipatanakul W. The Effects of the Environment on Asthma Disease Activity. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2019;39(2):163-75.

Tiotiu AI, Novakova P, Nedeva D, Chong-Neto HJ, Novakova S, Steiropoulos P, et al. Impact of Air Pollution on Asthma Outcomes. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(17).

Guarnieri M, Balmes JR. Outdoor air pollution and asthma. Lancet. 2014;383(9928):1581-92.

Rehman N, Morais-Almeida M, Wu AC. Asthma Across Childhood: Improving Adherence to Asthma Management from Early Childhood to Adolescence. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2020;8(6):1802-7.

Kashaninia Z, Payrovee Z, Soltani R, Mahdaviani SA. Effect of Family Empowerment on Asthma Control in School-Age Children. Tanaffos. 2018;17(1):47-52.

Boutopoulou B, Koumpagioti D, Matziou V, Priftis KN, Douros K. Interventions on Adherence to Treatment in Children With Severe Asthma: A Systematic Review. Front Pediatr. 2018;6:232.

Srour-Alphonse P, Cvetkovski B, Azzi E, Rand C, Cheong LHM, Kritikos V, et al. Understanding the Influences Behind Parents' Asthma Decision-Making: A Qualitative Exploration of the Asthma Network of Parents with Children with Asthma. Pulm Ther. 2021;7(1):151-70.

van Aalderen WM. Childhood asthma: diagnosis and treatment. Scientifica (Cairo). 2012;674204.

Williams B, Powell A, Hoskins G, Neville R. Exploring and explaining low participation in physical activity among children and young people with asthma: a review. BMC Fam Pract. 2008;9(1):40.

Tenero L, Tezza G, Cattazzo E, Piacentini G. Wheezing in preschool children. Early Hum Dev. 2013;89:S13-7.

Panagiotou M, Koulouris NG, Rovina N. Physical Activity: A Missing Link in Asthma Care. J Clin Med. 2020;9(3).

Hsu J, Qin X, Beavers SF, Mirabelli MC. Asthma-Related School Absenteeism, Morbidity, and Modifiable Factors. Am J Prev Med. 2016;51(1):23-32.

Oland AA, Booster GD, Bender BG. Psychological and lifestyle risk factors for asthma exacerbations and morbidity in children. World Allergy Organ J. 2017;10(1):35.

Hossny E, Rosario N, Lee BW, Singh M, El-Ghoneimy D, Soh JY, et al. The use of inhaled corticosteroids in pediatric asthma: update. World Allergy Organ J. 2016;9:26.




How to Cite

Alzamzami, A. A., Alenezi, S. S., Saptan, L. M., Alkaki, R. T., Albaqami, S. M., Karbouji, R. A., Daba, W. F., Alahmadi, R. A., Hafez, A. M., Asiri, H. A., & Alhabshi, N. H. (2023). Childhood asthma complications, management, and environmental triggers. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 11(1), 371–375.



Review Articles