Investigating the link between vitamin d deficiency and depression and anxiety in medical students at Jazan university: a cross-sectional study


  • Omar Oraibi Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
  • Mohammed Somaili Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
  • Essa Jaawna Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
  • Sarah Alfaraj Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
  • Jalal Majhali Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
  • Alhanouf Zuqayl Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
  • Abdulrahman Hadadi Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
  • Ruba Ageeli Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
  • Khawla Modawi Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
  • Alaa Najmi Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
  • Abdullah Majrashi Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
  • Luai Alhazmi Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
  • Bassem Oraibi Medical Research Center, Jazan, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
  • Eman Bahkali Ministry of Health, Jazan, Saudi Arabia



Depression, Anxiety, Medical students, Academic performance, Vitamin D deficiency


Background: Numerous studies have assessed the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among Saudi individuals and correlated depression and anxiety with vitamin D deficiency. However, studies have not looked at these factors in Saudi Arabia's Jazan medical students. The current study aimed to clarify the relationship between low vitamin D levels, depression, anxiety, and academic performance.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students at Jazan university. The dependent variables were depression and anxiety, and their association with covariates, including sex, marital status, GPA, BMI, vitamin D level, and physical exercise, was evaluated. The 21-item depression, anxiety, and stress scale, which has been validated, was utilized.

Results: Of 252 students, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 54.4%; anxiety, 62.3%; and depression 68.7%. Comparatively, more female students than male students were vitamin D deficient. Stress was found to be substantially related to vitamin D deficiency (p<0.001). Anxiety was also significantly related to vitamin D deficiency (p<0.001), wherein the students with anxiety had a considerably higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency than those without anxiety (84% vs. 32.5%). Similarly, depression was significantly associated with vitamin D deficiency (p<0.001), wherein students with depression were much more likely to get vitamin D deficiency than students without depression (86.7% vs. 27.5%)-no significant association otherwise with other variables.

Conclusions: Stress, depression, and anxiety are associated with vitamin D deficiency. This finding highlights the importance of mental health promotion among medical students owing to its link to quality of life and academic performance.


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How to Cite

Oraibi, O., Somaili, M., Jaawna, E., Alfaraj, S., Majhali, J., Zuqayl, A., Hadadi, A., Ageeli, R., Modawi, K., Najmi, A., Majrashi, A., Alhazmi, L., Oraibi, B., & Bahkali, E. (2023). Investigating the link between vitamin d deficiency and depression and anxiety in medical students at Jazan university: a cross-sectional study. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 11(1), 11–19.



Original Research Articles