Management and outcomes of apexification procedures in traumatized immature teeth


  • Ainaa A. Alsharif Department of Endodontics, North Jeddah Specialist Dental Center, King Abdullah Medical Complex, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Faisal S. Masaud College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
  • Khalid A. Binjabaan Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health, Medina, Saudi Arabia
  • Naif M. Alwadai Al Taneem Primary Healthcare Center, Ministry of Health, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
  • Faisal A. Maroof Al Taneem Primary Healthcare Center, Ministry of Health, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
  • Ibrahim A. Shabel Al Hlami Primary Health Care Centre, Ahad Rofaidah, Saudi Arabia
  • Reham M. Daghriri College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
  • Reem M. Alsakr North Riyadh Dental Center, 32 Dental Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Alrbab M. Aljeshi College of Dentistry, Ibn Sina National College, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Ali J. Alboori College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
  • Nadin S. Mulla College of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia



Apexification, Immature teeth, Dental trauma, Regenerative endodontics, Biocompatible materials, Pediatric dentistry


The oral health of pediatric patients is a significant concern, with dental injuries being a common occurrence in this vulnerable population. Traumatic injuries to immature teeth, characterized by incomplete root development and open apices, present unique challenges that require specialized clinical management. Understanding the anatomy and developmental characteristics of immature teeth is crucial for effective management. Historically, apexification procedures relied on calcium hydroxide, but advancements in dental pulp biology led to regenerative endodontics, a transformative approach that preserves pulp vitality while promoting apical closure. Contemporary techniques include calcium hydroxide apexification, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apexification, and regenerative endodontics, each with its advantages and considerations. Patient selection, radiographic assessment, choice of biocompatible materials, and post-operative care are key components of contemporary apexification protocols. Advanced imaging modalities like cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) enhance diagnostic accuracy. Challenges in apexification procedures include infection control, the risk of root fractures, and dealing with resorption phenomena. Moreover, pediatric patients require special attention to address compliance and psychological factors. The long-term outcomes of apexification procedures extend beyond clinical and radiographic parameters and encompass growth and development as well as the quality of life of pediatric patients. Preservation of arch integrity, prevention of malocclusion, and maintaining oral health-related quality of life are vital considerations.



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How to Cite

Alsharif, A. A., Masaud, F. S., Binjabaan, K. A., Alwadai, N. M., Maroof, F. A., Shabel, I. A., Daghriri, R. M., Alsakr, R. M., Aljeshi, A. M., Alboori, A. J., & Mulla, N. S. (2023). Management and outcomes of apexification procedures in traumatized immature teeth. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 10(12), 4998–5003.



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