Bangladeshi parents’ knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer and willingness to vaccinate female family members against human papilloma virus: a cross sectional study


  • Anjuman Sultana Mugda Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Shakila Jahan Shimu Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • M. Jakanta Faika Mugda Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Thrina Islam Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Noor-E- Ferdous Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Ashrafun Nessa Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh



Bangladeshi parents, Perception, CC, Acceptance, HPV vaccine


Background: Cervical cancer (CC) is an important cause of cancer death among Bangladeshi women and human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative factor for developing CC. HPV vaccination is yet to be implemented as part of national immunization programme in Bangladesh.

Method: The objective of this cross-sectional research was to evaluate the understanding of CC, HPV, and the willingness to accept HPV vaccination among parents of school-aged children (between 5-16 years) from grades 1-10 in the capital city of Bangladesh, Dhaka. The study was conducted from February 2020 to January 2021 by paper-based survey.

Results: This study showed 86.6% of participants knew that CC is preventable and 98.6% knew that vaccine can prevent CC. Only 1.3% of the participants heard about HPV. Majority (97.1%) were interested in HPV vaccination to female family members. Knowledge about visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) test, CC prevention and HPV vaccine were significantly associated with willingness to give vaccine. Gender, age, educational level and socioeconomic condition of respondents have no relation with vaccine acceptance (p>0.05). This study showed that total 1319 (45%) respondents sought the vaccine free of cost and personal relation as friends and family were major source of information (64.8%).

Conclusions: The study's results revealed that a significant number of Bangladeshi parents were aware of CC, CC prevention, and HPV vaccination. Nonetheless, most participants expressed a willingness to vaccinate their female family members against HPV.


Shafiullah M. Bangladesh as an LMIC: What are the implications? Available at:,-com_2,-14-7-2015_f_100521_0.jpg. Accessed on 19 August, 2022.

Sung H, Ferlay J, Siegel RL, Laversanne M, Soerjomataram S, Jemal A et al. Global Cancer Statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries. CA: Cancer J Clin. 2021;71(3)209-49.

Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Pineros M et al. Global cancer observatory: cancer today. Lyon, France Int Res Cancer. 2021;1.

ZurHausen H. Human papillomaviruses and their possible role in squamous cell carcinomas. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1977;78:1-30.

Walboomers JMM, Jacobs MV, Manos MM, Borch FX, Kummer A, Shah KV et al. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J Pathol. 1999;189(1):12-9.

Kashyap N, Krishnan N, Kaur S, Ghai S. Risk Factors of Cervical Cancer: A Case-Control Study. Asia Pac J Oncol Nurs. 2019;6:308-14.

A Global Strategy for elimination of cervical cancer. Available at: towards- healthier-generations-free-diseases/global-strategy-elimination-cervical-cancer. Accessed on 19 August, 2022.

Brisson M, Kim JJ, Canfell K, Drolet M, Gingras G, Burger EA et al. Impact of HPV vaccination and cervical screening on cervical cancer elimination: a comparative modelling analysis in 78 low-income and lower-middle income countries. The Lancet. 2020;395(10224):575-90.

Zeba D. Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid for Cervical Cancer Screening: Bangladesh Perspective. Faridpur Med College J. 2018;13(2):56-7.

Arbyn M, Xu L, Simoens C, Martin‐Hirsch PP. Prophylactic vaccination against human papillomaviruses to prevent cervical cancer and its precursors. Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2018 5(5):CD009069.

Future II Study Group. Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent high-grade cervical lesions. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:1915-27.

Garland SM, Smith JS. Human papillomavirus vaccines. Drugs. 2010;70(9):1079-98.

National Strategy for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control in Bangladesh, 2017-2022. WHO 2022. Available at: Accessed on 19 August, 2022.

Post Introduction Evaluation of Human Papillomavirus vaccination held in Gazipur 2017. World Health Organization: South-East Asia Bangladesh. Available at: Accessed on 19 August, 2022.

Parmar T, Kaur J, Sultana F, Vu T, Vu T. Cervical Cancer Prevention In Bangladesh: Awareness And Accessibility To Preventive Methods: A Systematic Review. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Natural Sciences and Technology (ICNST’18) 2018, Asian University for Women, Chittagong, Bangladesh. iLab-Australia. 2018;74-8.

New country classifications by income level. The World Bank Data Team. 2016. Available at: Accessed on 19 August, 2022.

Bruni L, Serrano B, Roura E, Alemany L, Cowan M, Herrero R et al. Cervical Cancer Screening Worldwide: Programmes and age-specific coverage estimates for 202 Countries and Territories worldwide: a review and synthetic analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2022;10(8):e1115-27.

Islam JY, Khatun F, Alam A, Sultana F, Bhuiyan A, Alam N. Knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV vaccine in Bangladeshi women: a population based, cross-sectional study BMC Women's Health. 2018;18:15.

Raychaudhuri S, Mandal S. Socio-demographic and behavioural risk factors for cervical cancer and knowledge, attitude and practice in rural and urban areas of North Bengal, India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13:1093-6.

Johnson DC, Bhatta MP, Gurung S, Aryal S, Lhaki P, Shrestha S. Knowledge and Awareness of Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Cervical Cancer and HPV Vaccine among Women in Two Distinct Nepali Communities. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(19):8287-93.

Chellapandian P, Myneni S, Ravikumar D, Padmanaban P, James KM, Kunasekaran VM. Knowledge on cervical cancer and perceived barriers to the uptake of HPV vaccination among health professionals. BMC Women’s Health. 2021;21(1):65.

Malo TL, Gilkey MB, Hall ME, Shah PD, Brewer NT. Messages to Motivate Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: National Studies. 2010;10:EPI-16-0224.

Kolek CO, Opanga SA, Okalebo F, Birichi A, Kurdi A, Godman B et al. Impact of Parental Knowledge and Beliefs on HPV Vaccine Hesitancy in Kenya-Findings and Implications. Vaccines. 2022;10(8):1185.

Singh S, Narayan N, Sinha R, Sinha P, Sinha VP, Upadhye JJ. Awareness about cervical cancer risk factors and symptoms. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2018;7:4987-91.

Mengesha A, Messele A, Beletew B. Knowledge and attitude towards cervical cancer among reproductive age group women in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia. BMC Public Health. 2020;20:1-10.

Qayum MO, Billah MM, Akhter R, Flora MS. Women's Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Cervical Cancer and Its Screening in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2021;22(10):3327-35.

Hoque E, Hoque M. Knowledge of and attitude towards cervical cancer among female university students in South Africa. South. Afr J Epidemiol Infect. 2009;24(1):21-4.

Nessa A, Hussain MA, Rashid MHU, Akhter N, Roy JS, Afroz R. Role of print and audiovisual media in cervical cancer prevention in Bangladesh. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prevention. 2013;14(5):3131-7.

Tran NT, Choe SI, Taylor R, Ko WS, Pyo HS, So HC. Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) concerning cervical cancer and screening among rural and urban women in six provinces of the democratic People’s Republic of Korea. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12(11):3029-33.

WHO. Regional Office for South-East Asia. Expanded programme on immunization (EPI). FactSheet 2020, Bangladesh. Available at: file:///C:/Users/PC/Downloads/ban-epi-factsheet-2020-eng.pdf. Accessed on 19 August, 2022.

HPV immunization. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cancer Control Indicators. National Cancer Control Indicators 2020. Available at: Accessed on 19 August, 2022.

Wijayanti KE, Schütze H, MacPhail C, Braunack-Mayer A. Parents’ knowledge, beliefs, acceptance and uptake of the HPV vaccine in members of The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies. Vaccine. 2021;39(17):2335-43.

DHIS2 National cervical and breast Cancer Surveillance System in DGHS website. Raw data is presented above here from DHIS2. Available at: Accessed on 19 August, 2022.

Ahmed T, Ashrafunnessa KS, Rahman J. Development of a visual inspection programme for cervical cancer prevention in Bangladesh. Reprod Health Matters. 2008;16:78-85.




How to Cite

Sultana, A., Jahan Shimu, S., Jakanta Faika, M., Islam, T., Ferdous, N.-E.-., & Nessa, A. (2023). Bangladeshi parents’ knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer and willingness to vaccinate female family members against human papilloma virus: a cross sectional study. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 10(10), 3446–3453.



Original Research Articles