Factors affecting access to early postnatal care service among women of urban slum in Bangladesh


  • Mohammad A. Hasan Department of Global Health and Development, Hanyang University, Korea; Dhaka Mohanagar General Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • M. Arif A. Mujahid Dhaka Mohanagar General Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh; University of South Wales, The United Kingdom




Early postnatal care, Access, Women, Urban slum, Bangladesh


Background: Postnatal care (PNC) refers to care and attention to the general mental and physical health of the mother and infant during the period beginning after the delivery of the placenta up to the next six weeks. The postnatal period, the hours and days after birth is critical to the health for survival and is the most vulnerable time for a mother and newborn. Majority of maternal death occur after delivery but the postnatal period is the most ignored time for the establishment of quality services yet now in Bangladesh. The aim of the study was to assess the factors affecting access to early postnatal care service among women of urban slum in Bangladesh.

Methods: This was a community based cross sectional descriptive quantitative study conducted among the women of reproductive age who gave birth in the last one year prior to the study period in different slums of Dhaka South City Corporation, Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period from September to October 2016. A stratified sampling method was employed to select the total of 382 study participants for this study. Data were collected by means of a pretested structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Chi square and binary logistic regression analysis was carried out by using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 21.0.

Results: In this study, it was found that, 29.1% women and 29.8% of their baby received postnatal care service (PNC) visit after last delivery. The factors that significantly affected the access to postnatal care service utilization in this study were women’s education, household income, residence, husband’s education and occupation, physical violence against women, place of delivery, ANC visit, PNC checkup for baby, postnatal complications, importance of PNC checkup, knowledge in PNC service, perception of postnatal danger sign, sources of information, transport use, and health insurance. In assessing all those factors, the p values were found as <0.001.

Conclusions: Among the common factors affecting access to early postnatal care service among women of urban slum, domestic physical violence against women and health insurance emerged as strong predictors. In Bangladesh there is a crucial need for public health interventions to increase the access rate to early postnatal care service that should target women who need this service at the appropriate time.


Khanal V, Adhikari M, Karkee R, Gavidia T. Factors associated with the utilisation of postnatal care services among the mothers of Nepal: analysis of Nepal demographic and health survey 2011. BMC Womens Health. 2014;14:19.

World Health Organization. WHO recommendations on postnatal care of the mother and newborn, World Health Organization. 2014. Available at: https://www.who.int/publications-detail-redirect/9789240045989. Accessed on 24 May 2023.

Langlois EV, Miszkurka M, Ziegler D, Karp I, Zunzunegui MV. Protocol for a systematic review on inequalities in postnatal care services utilization in low-and middle-income countries. Systematic Rev. 2013;2(1):1.

MCA/WHO-SEAR. MCA/WHO-SEAR. Bangladesh Maternal and Perinatal Health Profile; Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health (MCA/WHO); South East Asia Region. 2012. Available at: https://www.who. int/publications/i/item/WHO-FWC-MCA-14.01. Accessed on 24 May 2023.

BDHS. Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. National Institute of Population Research and Training, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 2014. Available at: https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/fr311/fr311.pdf. Accessed on 24 May 2023.

Rahman SA, Parkhurst JO, Normand C. Maternal Health Review Bangladesh; Policy Research Unit (PRU), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of Peoples Republic of Bangladesh; HSD/WP/02/03. 2002. Available at: https://assets. publishing.service.gov.uk/media/57a08cf4ed915d622c0016a7/02-03_bangladesh.pdf. Accessed on 24 May 2023.

Quayyum Z, Khan MN, Quayyum T, Nasreen HE, Chowdhury M, Ensor T. Can community level interventions have an impact on equity and utilization of maternal health care - evidence from rural Bangladesh. Int J Equity Health. 2013;12:22.

BUHS. Bangladesh Urban Health Survey 2013; National Institute of Population Research and Training (NIPORT); MEASURE Evaluation, UNC-Chapel Hill, USA; US Agency for International Development (USAID), Bangladesh, Department for International Development (DFID). 2013. Available at: https://www.measureevaluation.org/publications /tr-15-117. Accessed on 24 May 2023.

World Medical Association. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Bull World Health Organ. 2001;79(4):373-4.

Voigt P, Bussche AVD. Enforcement and fines under the GDPR. The EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). Springer, Cham. 2017;201-17.

Rahman MM, Haque SE, Zahan MS. Factors affecting the utilisation of postpartum care among young mothers in Bangladesh. Health Soc Care Community. 2011;19(2):138-47.

Syed U, Asiruddin Sk, Helal MS, Mannan II, Murray J. Immediate and early postnatal care for mothers and newborns in rural Bangladesh. J Health Popul Nutr. 2006;24(4):508-18.

Huda FA, Ahmed A, Dasgupta SK, Jahan M, Ferdous J, Koblinsky M, et al. Profile of maternal and foetal complications during labour and delivery among women giving birth in hospitals in Matlab and Chandpur, Bangladesh. J Health Popul Nutr. 2012;30(2):131-42.

Singh A, Padmadas SS, Mishra US, Pallikadavath S, Johnson FA, Matthews Z. Socio-economic inequalities in the use of postnatal care in India. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e37037.

Khatun F, Rasheed S, Moran AC, Alam AM, Shomik MS, Sultana M, et al. Causes of neonatal and maternal deaths in Dhaka slums: implications for service delivery. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:84.

Bhaisare KA, Khakase GM. Study of utilization of postnatal care services in tribal area, Maharashtra. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2014;3(12):1487-91.

Dhakal S, Chapman GN, Simkhada PP, van Teijlingen ER, Stephens J, Raja AE. Utilisation of postnatal care among rural women in Nepal. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2007;7:19.

Workineh Y. Factors affecting utilisation of postnatal care service in Jabitena district, Amhara region Ethiopia. Sci J Public Health. 2014;23:169-76.

Yamashita T, Suplido SA, Ladines-Llave C, Tanaka Y, Senba N, Matsuo H. A cross-sectional analytic study of postpartum health care service utilization in the Philippines. PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e85627.

Alvaro JMS, Oducado RMF. Maternal profile, awareness and utilization of basic emergency obstetrics and newborn care (BEmONC) in a rural municipality in Iloilo, Philippines. Asia Pac J Educ Arts Sci. 2015;2(1):6-13.

Sines E, Tinker A, Ruben J. The Maternal–Newborn–Child Health Continuum of Care. 2006. Available at: https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/ sites/2413/2014/10/Maternal-Newborn-Child-Continuum_PopRefBureau_Rep_2006.pdf. Accessed on 24 May 2023.

Singh A, Kumar A, Pranjali P. Utilization of maternal healthcare among adolescent mothers in urban India: evidence from DLHS-3. Peer J. 2014;2:e592.

Comfort AB, Peterson LA, Hatt LE. Effect of Health Insurance on the Use and Provision of Maternal Health Services and Maternal and Neonatal Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review. J Health Popul Nutr. 2013;31(4 Suppl 2):S81-105.




How to Cite

Hasan, M. A., & Mujahid, M. A. A. (2023). Factors affecting access to early postnatal care service among women of urban slum in Bangladesh. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 10(10), 3524–3534. https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233081



Original Research Articles