Correlation between hemoglobin levels of mothers and children aged less than two years attending the immunization clinics in Puducherry: a cross-sectional analytical study
Keywords:Anemia, Antenatal, Co-occurrence, Correlation, Immunization clinic, Under-five
Background: Insufficient attention has been paid to the impact of maternal anemia on the hemoglobin status of children. This study aimed to estimate the correlation between the hemoglobin levels of mother’s antenatal and their current hemoglobin levels with the hemoglobin levels of their children and to find the co-occurrence of anemia among the family members of the children.
Methods: A total of 200 children aged nine months to two years with their mothers were enrolled in the immunization clinics in a tertiary care hospital, and from health centres attached to it. For assessing the triple burden of anemia within the family members of the children, 50 mother-child-sibling triads were approached. The hemoglobin values of the mothers during their third trimester in the antenatal period was noted from the antenatal records.
Results: 62% of the children aged less than two years were anemic and the mean hemoglobin level of the children was 10.33±1.33 gm/dl. The correlation between hemoglobin levels of children and mothers during their antenatal period was 0.15 (p: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.007 to 0.279) and 0.10 (p: 0.15, 95% CI: -0.038 to 0.236) was the correlation between current hemoglobin levels of children and mothers. 7 (14%) mother-child-sibling triads had co-occurrence of anemia in the sub-sample of 50.
Conclusions: The multiple linear regression analysis confirmed that there is a weak correlation between the hemoglobin levels of mothers and children. We concluded that treating an anemic individual in a family can somehow prevent anemia in other family members.
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Guidelines for Control of Iron Deficiency Anaemia. 2013. Available at: https://www.nhm.gov.in/images/ pdf/programmes/child-health/guidelines/Control-of-Iron-Deficiency-Anaemia.pdf. Accessed on 21 March 2023.
International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and ICF. 2021. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5), India, 2019-21: Mizoram. Mumbai: IIPS. Available at: https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/ FR375/FR375.pdf. Accessed on 21 March 2023.
Paiva AD, Rondó PH, Pagliusi RA, Latorre MD, Cardoso MA, Gondim SS. Relationship between the iron status of pregnant women and their newborns. Revist Saúd Públ. 2007;41:321-7.
Hemachitra J, Monisha A. Risk of infant anemia in 3-6 months old babies and its association with maternal anemia. Int J Contemp Pediatr. 2018;5(3):938.
Puducherry (union territory). Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puducherry_(union_territory). Accessed on 11 February 2023.
Marques RFSV, Taddei JAAC, Konstantyner T, Marques ACV, Braga JAP. Correlation between hemoglobin levels of mothers and child on exclusive breast feeding. J Pediatr. 2016;92(5):479-85.
World Health Organization. Haemoglobin concentrations for the diagnosis of anaemia and assessment of severity. World Health Organization. 2011. Available at: https://apps.who.int/ iris/handle/10665/85839. Accessed on 26 September 2022.
Ministry of Health, (GoI) FW. National Family Health Survey-5: Fact Sheet for Puducherry Union Territory. 2021. Available at: http://rchiips.org/ nfhs/NFHS-5_FCTS/Puducherry.pdf. Accessed on 26 September 2022.
Heesemann E, Mähler C, Subramanyam MA, Vollmer S. Pregnancy anaemia, child health and development: a cohort study in rural India. BMJ Open. 2021;11(11):1-10.
Zhang Y, Jin L, Liu JM, Ye R, Ren A. Maternal hemoglobin concentration during gestation and risk of anemia in infancy: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. J Pediatr. 2016;175:106-10.
District Level Household and Facility Survey-4 State Fact Sheet Puducherry. 2012. Available at: http://rchiips.org/pdf/dlhs4/report/PU.pdf. Accessed on 26 September 2022.
Kumar P, Chauhan S, Patel R. Anaemia among mother-father-child pairs in India: examining co-existence of triple burden of anaemia in a family. BMC Public Health. 2021;4-11.