The influential factors of stunting in toddlers of Cianjur regency
Keywords:Food diversity, History of infectious diseases, Mother’s nutritional knowledge, Stunted toddlers
Background: Nutritional problems had become the major problem for many developing countries such as in Indonesia. One of nutritional problems that brought high concern to date is stunting problem. Result from 2021 Indonesian nutritional status study stated the stunting prevalence of toddlers in Indonesia was 24.4%, where Cianjur regency as one example of regencies in West Java has fairly high stunting rate (33.7%).
Methods: This study is applying a cross-sectional design. The research was conducted in May-July 2022 in Cianjur regency. As subjects of this study were 24-59 months toddlers who were selected by a method of clustered sampling. The research data was collected by questionnaires and a direct measurement method. Then, data analysis was conducted by Chi-square and logistic regression analysis.
Results: The result showed the prevalence number of stunting in Warungkondang district, Cianjur regency was 40.70%, with influencial factors were the birth weight (p=0.012), history of: cough (p=0.050), fever (p=0.037), diarrhea (p=0.040) during the last 3 months, the mother’s knowledge level (p=0.050), the food diversity (p=0.048) and the health care pattern (p=0.004).
Conclusions: There are several influential factors to stunting problem such as birth weight, history of infectious diseases, the level of mother’s nutritional knowledge, the food diversity and health care patterns. For the most dominant factors that influence stunting are mother’s nutritional knowledge and the birth weight of the baby. It indicates the causes of stunting are not only triggered by health factors. Therefore, collaboration with various stakeholders is needed to overcome the stunting problem.
UNICEF. Early Chilhood Development. In: Oxford University Press. 2001.
Venetsanou F, Kambas A. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers’ Motor Development. Early Child Educ J. 2010;37(4):319-27.
Hanum NL. Child care practices, language and cognitive development of stunted and normal childern in Sumurbatu Bantar Gebang Bekasi. 2012.
Kinyoki DK, Berkley JA, Moloney GM, Kandala NB, Noor AM. Predictors of the risk of malnutrition among children under the age of 5 years in Somalia. Public Health Nutr. 2015;18(17):3125-33.
Andersen CT, Stein AD, Reynolds SA. Stunting in infancy is associated with decreased risk of high body mass index for age at 8 and 12 years of age. J Nutr. 2016;146(11):2296-2303.
Prayitno GP. Ketahanan Pangan Kabupaten/Kota Provinsi Jawa Barat. Agribus J. 2020;14(1).
Arlius A, Sudargo T, Subejo. The Relationship between Family Food Security and Toddler Nutritional Status (Study in Palasari Village and Community Health Center in Legok District, Tangerang Regency). J Ketahanan Pangan. 2017;23(3):359-375.
Kennedy G, Terri B, Dop M. Guidelines for Measuring Household and Individual Dietary Diversity. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation. 2011.
Terri J. Ballard AWK. The food insecurity experience scale: Developing a global standard for monitoring hunger worldwide. Technical Paper. 2013;(8):1-58.
Bappenas RI. Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional 2020-2024. 2020;(18):6.
Candra A, Puruhita N, Susanto J. Risk Factors of Stunting among 1-2 Years Old Children in Semarang City. Media Med Indones. 2015;46(36):6-11.
Abbas F, Kumar R, Mahmood T, Somrongthong R. Impact of children born with low birth weight on stunting and wasting in Sindh province of Pakistan : a propensity score matching approach. Sci Rep. 2021:1-10.
Setiawan E, Machmud R, Masrul. Factors Associated with Stunting Incidents in Children Aged 24-59 Months in the Working Area of Andalas Health Center, East Padang District, Padang City in 2018. J Kesehat Andalas. 2018;7(2):275-84.
Nasution D, Nurdiati DS, Huriyati E. Low birth weight with stunting in children aged 6-24 months. J Gizi Klin Indones. 2014;11(01):31-7.
Hien NN, Hoa NN. Nutritional Status and Determinants of Malnutrition in Children under Three Years of Age in Nghean Vietnam. Pakistan J Nutr. 2015;8(7):958-64.
Aghadiati F, Ardianto O. Nutritional Status and Exclusive Breastfeeding with Stunting Incidence in Puding Health Center. J Gizi Diet. 2022;1(2):149-55.
Supariasa IDN, Bakri, Fajar. Penilaian Status Gizi Edisi Revisi. EGC. 2013.
Pertiwi D, Kusudaryati D, Muis SF, Widajanti L. Effect of Zn supplementation on changes in the TB/U index of stunted children aged 24-36 months. J Gizi Indoensia. 2017;5(2):98-104.
Pertiwi FD, Hariansyah M, Prasetya EP. Faktor risiko stunting pada balita di Kelurahan Mulyaharja. J Mhs Kesehat Masy. 2019;2(5).
Picauly I, Toy SM. The Determinant Analysis and the Impact of Stunting for School Children School Performance in Kupang and Sumba Timur, NTT. J Gizi dan Pangan. 2013;8(1):55.
Wicaksono RA, Arto KS, Mutiara E, Deliana M, Lubis M, Batubara JRL. Risk factors of stunting in indonesian children aged 1 to 60 months. Paediatr Indones. 2021;61(1):12-9.
Kinyoki DK, Manda SO, Moloney GM. Modelling the Ecological Comorbidity of Acute Respiratory Infection, Diarrhoea and Stunting among Children Under the Age of 5 Years in Somalia. Int Stat Rev. 2017;85(1):164-76.
Checkley W, Buckley G, Gilman RH. Multi-country analysis of the effects of diarrhoea on childhood stunting. Int J Epidemiol. 2008;37(4):816-30.
Deboer MD, Lima AAM. Early childhood growth failure and the developmental origins of adult disease: Do enteric infections and malnutrition increase risk for the metabolic syndrome? Natl Institutes Heal. 2013;70(11):642-53.
Desyanti C, Nindya TS. The relations between diarrheal disease history and hygiene practices with stunting incidences among children aged 24-59 months in The Work Area of Puskesmas Simolawang, Surabaya. Amerta Nutr. Published online 2017:243-51.
Weisz A, Meuli G, Thakwalakwa C, Trehan I, Maleta K, Manary M. The Duration of Diarrhea and Fever is Associated with Growth Faltering in Rural Malawian Children Aged 6-18 Months. Nutr J. 2011;10(25):1-4.
Sari MT, Daryanto, Oesmani M. Maternal Characteristics and Knowledge on the Risk of Childhood Stunting at Simpang Kawat Community Health Center, Jambi. Int Conference Public Health Solo Indo. 2020:279-84.
Ningtyas YP, Udiyono A, Kusariana N. Knowledge of Mothers Related to Stunting in Toddlers in the Work Area of the Karangan Health Center, Semarang City. J Kesehat Masy. 2020;8(1):107-113.
Oo MZ, Soe PP. Risk factors for stunting of under-five children in Myanmar. Int J Community Med Public Heal. 2023;10(3):981-6.
Municipality B, Sangroula RK, Uprety S. Factors associated with nutritional status of under five children among Satar Community of Bhadrapur Municipality , Jhapa , Nepal. Int J Community Med Public Heal. 2020;7(5):2059-64.
Nurmaliza, Herlina S. Relationship of Mother’s Knowledge and Education to Toddler Nutritional Status. J Kesmas Asclepius. 2019;44(8):1-19.
Arum P, Waristo H, Ambar E. Relationship of mother knowledge and nutritional intake patterns on nutritional status of toddlers before and after counseling about nutritional care patterns in Panti District, Jember Regency. J Heal. 2016;4:14-32.
Nugrahaeni D. Prevention of malnutrition under five years of age through counseling on nutrition flipcharts in 2018. J open acces under CCBY. 2018:113-24.
Hein AK, Hong SA, Puckpinyo, Apa Tejativaddhana P. Dietary diversity, social support and stunting among children aged 6-59 months in an internally displaced persons camp in Kayin State, Myanmar. Clin Nutr Res. 2019;8(4):307.
Mohd M, Khalique N. Dietary diversity and stunting among infants and young children: A Cross‑sectional study in Aligarh. Indian J Community Med. 2017;42(1):147-50.
Wantina M, Rahayu LS, Yuliana I. The Relationship Diversity of Food Consumption with Stunting on Toddler age 6-24 Months. J ARGIPA. 2017;2(2):89-96.
Maiza A, Julinar J, Andri A. Factors Associated with Stunting Incidents in the Work Area of the Ulee Kareng Health Center, Banda Aceh City. Ahmar Metastasis Heal J. 2022;2(1):34-40.
Rambe KS. Pola Asuh Orangtua Dengan Kejadian Stunting Pada Balita Di Kelompok BKB HI. J Ilm PANNMED. 2022;17(3):575-80.