An inconspicuous threat to our nation-it’s time to end


  • Abinav Sivakumar Department of Community Medicine, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Kelambakkam, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Anugraha John Faculty of Medicine, Sri Lalithambigai Medical College and Hospital, Dr. M.G.R. Educational and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu, India



Counterfeit medicine, Over-the-counter medicines, Falsified drugs, Adverse drug reaction, Drug resistance


It is well known that counterfeit medical products cause harm to patients and fail to treat the diseases for which they were intended. They lead to loss of confidence in medicines, healthcare providers and health systems. They are becoming common in every region of the world. It is believed that up to 10% of all medicines sold worldwide are counterfeit, with higher prevalence in regions where drug regulatory and enforcement systems are weakest. An estimated 1 in 10 medical products in low- and middle-income countries and it contributes to antimicrobial resistance and drug-resistant infections.


El-Jardali F, Akl EA, Fadlallah R, Oliver S, Saleh N, El-Bawab L et al. Interventions to combat or prevent drug counterfeiting: a systematic review. BMJ Open. 2015;5(3):e006290.

Dondorp AM, Limmathurotsakul D, Ashley EA. What’s wrong in the control of antimicrobial resistance in critically ill patients from low- and middle-income countries? Intensive Care Med. 2018;44(1):79-82.

Enyinda CI, Tolliver D. Taking Counterfeits out of the Pharmaceutical Supply Chain in Nigeria: Leveraging Multilayer Mitigation Approach. J Afr Bus. 2009;10(2):218-34.

Boxtel CJ van, Santoso B, Edwards IR. Drug Benefits and Risks: International Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology - Revised 2nd Edition. IOS Press. 2008;846.

Wertheimer AI, Norris J. Safeguarding against substandard/counterfeit drugs: Mitigating a macroeconomic pandemic. Res Soc Adm Pharm. 2009;5(1):4-16.

Mackey TK, Liang BA, York P, Kubic T. Counterfeit Drug Penetration into Global Legitimate Medicine Supply Chains: A Global Assessment. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015;92(6):59-67.

A63_23-en.pdf. Available at: Accessed on 25 May 2023.

Blackstone EA, Fuhr JP, Pociask S. The Health and Economic Effects of Counterfeit Drugs. Am Health Drug Benefits. 2014;7(4):216-24.

Cockburn R, Newton PN, Agyarko EK, Akunyili D, White NJ. The Global Threat of Counterfeit Drugs: Why Industry and Governments Must Communicate the Dangers. PLOS Med. 2005;2(4):e100.

Fadlallah R, El-Jardali F, Annan F, Azzam H, Akl EA. Strategies and Systems-Level Interventions to Combat or Prevent Drug Counterfeiting: A Systematic Review of Evidence Beyond Effectiveness. Pharm Med. 2016;30(5):263-76.

WHO-led anti-counterfeiting coalition examines technologies to prevent fake drugs. Available at: Accessed on 25 May 2023.

Bonthagarala B, Evangeline L, Mounica N, Reddy V, Ngabhushanam M, Redd D. Regulatory process and ethics for clinical trials in India (CDSCO). Pharma Innov J. 2017;6:165-9.

Final_Report_mashelkar.pdf. Available at: Accessed on 18 April 2023.

trs961-annex8-fipwhoguidelinesgoodpharmacy practice.pdf. Available at: default-source/medicines/norms-and-standards/ guidelines/distribution/trs961-annex8-fipwho guidelinesgoodpharmacypractice.pdf. Accessed on 25 May 2023.




How to Cite

Sivakumar, A., & John, A. (2023). An inconspicuous threat to our nation-it’s time to end. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 10(9), 3403–3405.



Letter to the Editor