Perception of breast cancer and self-breast examination practices among women in Lucknow, north India


  • Shipra King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Reema Kumari King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Gitika Nanda Singh King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • V. K. Singh King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India



Awareness, Breast cancer, Breast self-examination, Practices, Risk factors, Screening


Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity among women worldwide. It is one of the prime health issues in developed and developing countries because of the high prevalence of known risk factors. In the present study, we assess the knowledge of breast cancer and breast self-examination (BSE) screening practices among women in the capital city, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, North India.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in urban and rural areas of Lucknow. The period of study was one year, starting from December 2020 to November 2021. Data were obtained from 400 adult women (212 rural and 193 urban) using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire. Participants aged >20 years were randomly selected from two rural and two urban community health centres (CHCs). The questionnaire assessed respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, signs and symptoms, early detection methods, and knowledge and practices related to self-breast examination among women in Lucknow.

Results: Out of 400 respondents, only 33.5% (rural) and 55.96% (urban) women had heard of breast cancer. 17.55% (rural) and 13.47% (urban) women had heard about BSE. 4.72% (rural) and 8.81% (urban) women practice BSE occasionally. Knowledge about breast cancer, its symptoms, risk factors, and screening methods was similarly poor in women of Lucknow.

Conclusions: This finding correlated significantly with older age, higher levels of education, and occupation. There is a low level of awareness of breast cancer in Lucknow's urban and rural areas. BSE is hardly practiced, though the willingness to learn it is high.


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How to Cite

Shipra, Kumari, R., Singh, G. N., & Singh , V. K. (2024). Perception of breast cancer and self-breast examination practices among women in Lucknow, north India. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 11(2), 769–777.



Original Research Articles