Determinants of COVID-19 vaccine uptake among adults in Mwala Sub-county, Machakos County, Kenya
Keywords:COVID-19, Vaccine hesitancy, Vaccine uptake
Background: Despite the available evidence on benefits of COVID-19 vaccine, its low uptake and hesitancy remain a challenge. This study assessed individual, administrative, social, and demographic factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine uptake.
Methods: Analytical cross-sectional study design was used. The data was collected using structured questionnaires administered to 384 respondents and key informant interview guides that engaged six informants.
Results: Uptake of the first dose was 46.60% while fully vaccinated respondents were 11.70% of the total. There were significant associations between COVID-19 vaccine uptake and demographic predictors of age (χ2=15.524, df=3, p=0.001), sex (χ2=5.250, df=1, p=0.022), education level (χ2=107.556, df=3, p<0.001), and marital status (χ2=35.328, df=3, p<0.001). Some social factors such as dependence on unreliable sources of information (χ2=32.904, df=3, p<0.001) and collective responsibility of getting vaccinated to protect others (χ2=292.931, df=3, p<0.001) also exhibited significant associations. However, religious teachings did not influence vaccine uptake (df=1, R2=0.099, p=0.997). Individual factors of susceptibility perception (p<0.001, R2=0.525, df=1), severity perception (χ2=234.515, df=3, p<0.001), safety concerns (χ2=277.624, df=3, p<0.001), and perception that the vaccine benefits did not outdo side effects (χ2=277.624, df=3, p<0.001) determined vaccine uptake. Administrative factors of vaccine stock-outs (R2=0.091, df=1, p=0.997) and long queues (R2=0.061, df=1, p=0.997) had no influence on vaccine uptake.
Conclusions: With the findings indicating poor vaccine uptake, the government should incorporate COVID-19 vaccination into the existing routine vaccination schedule and address conspiracy theories revolving around the vaccine in various social media sites during health education and awareness vaccination campaigns.
Moghadas SM, Vilches TN, Zhang K, Wells CR, Shoukat A, Singer BH, et al. The impact of vaccination on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2021;73(12):2257-64.
Al-Mohaithef M, Padhi BK. Determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in Saudi Arabia: a web-based national survey. J Multidisc Healthc. 2020:1657-63.
de Figueiredo A, Larson HJ. Exploratory study of the global intent to accept COVID-19 vaccinations. Commu Med. 2021;1(1):30.
Thaker J, Menon V. Aotearoa New Zealand Public Attitudes to COVID-19 Vaccine, 2020.
Barry M, Temsah MH, Aljamaan F, Saddik B, Al-Eyadhy A, Alenezi S, et al. COVID-19 vaccine uptake among healthcare workers in the fourth country to authorize BNT162b2 during the first month of rollout. Vaccine. 2021;39(40):5762-8.
Diesel J, Sterrett N, Dasgupta S, Kriss JL, Barry V, Esschert KV, et al. COVID-19 vaccination coverage among adults-United States, December 14, 2020–May 22, 2021. Morb Mort W Rep. 2021;70(25):922.
Mou TJ, Afroz KA, Haq MA, Jahan D, Ahmad R, Islam T, et al. The effect of socio-demographic factors in health-seeking behaviors among bangladeshi residents during the first wave of COVID-19. InHealthcare 2022;410(3):483.
Fadhel FH. Vaccine hesitancy and acceptance: an examination of predictive factors in COVID-19 vaccination in Saudi Arabia. Heal Promot Internat. 2021;daab209.
Wang J, Jing R, Lai X, Zhang H, Lyu Y, Knoll MD, Fang H. Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination during the COVID-19 Pandemic in China. Vaccines. 2020;8(3):482.
Sumerlin TS, Kim JH, Wang Z, Hui AY, Chung RY. Determinants of COVID-19 vaccine uptake among female foreign domestic workers in Hong Kong: A cross-sectional quantitative survey. Inter J Environ Res Pub Heal. 2022;19(10):5945.
Loomba S, de Figueiredo A, Piatek SJ, de Graaf K, Larson HJ. Measuring the impact of COVID-19 vaccine misinformation on vaccination intent in the UK and USA. Nature Hu Behavi. 2021;5(3):337-48.
McAndrew S, Allington D. Mode and Frequency of Covid-19 Information Updates. Political Values, and Future Covid-19 Vaccine Attitudes. 2020.
Rane MS, Kochhar S, Poehlein E, You W, Robertson MM, Zimba R, et al. Determinants and trends of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and vaccine uptake in a national cohort of US adults: A longitudinal study. Am J Epidemiol. 2022;191(4):570-83.
Gerretsen P, Kim J, Caravaggio F, Quilty L, Sanches M, Wells S, et al. Individual determinants of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. PLoS One. 2021;16(11):e0258462.
Wang Y, Liu Y. Multilevel determinants of COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy in the United States: A rapid systematic review. Prevent Med Report. 2022;25:101673.
Orangi S, Pinchoff J, Mwanga D, Abuya T, Hamaluba M, Warimwe G, et al. Assessing the level and determinants of COVID-19 vaccine confidence in Kenya. Vaccines. 2021;9(8):936.
Simkhada P, Tamang P, Timilsina L, Simkhada B, Bissell P, van Teijlingen E, et al. Factors influencing COVID-19 vaccine uptake among Nepali people in the UK: A qualitative study. Vaccines. 2022;10(5):780.
Saied SM, Saied EM, Kabbash IA, Abdo SA. Vaccine hesitancy: Beliefs and barriers associated with COVID‐19 vaccination among Egyptian medical students. J Med Virol. 2021;93(7):4280-91.
Tsang SJ. Predicting COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Hong Kong: Vaccine knowledge, risks from coronavirus, and risks and benefits of vaccination. Vaccine: X. 2022;11:100164.
Afrifa-Anane GF, Larbi RT, Addo B, Agyekum MW, Kyei-Arthur F, Appiah M, et al. Facilitators and barriers to COVID-19 vaccine uptake among women in two regions of Ghana: A qualitative study. Plos one. 2022;17(8):e0272876.