Nutritional concepts of health promotion in sub urban community: focus on obesity and hypertension

Authors

  • Malachy B. Peter Department of Community and Public Health, Novena University Ogume, Delta State, Nigeria; Department of Dietetics, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua Edo State, Nigeria; Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Ambrose Alli University Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria
  • Ezekiel U. Nwose Department of Community and Public Health, Novena University Ogume, Delta State, Nigeria; School of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Australia
  • Charles Ofili Department of Community and Public Health, Novena University Ogume, Delta State, Nigeria
  • Esegbue Peters Department of Community and Public Health, Novena University Ogume, Delta State, Nigeria

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20232062

Keywords:

Nutrition, Health promotion, Sub-urban community, Obesity, Hypertension

Abstract

Many obese and hypertensive individuals reside in suburban areas with poor health infrastructure and low levels of public awareness. The adult morbidity and mortality rates are currently being dominated by diet-related non-communicable diseases like obesity, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome in various countries. Applying both individualized and community-based health promotion strategies can result in the prevention and control of obesity and hypertension. This study examined the role of nutrition in promoting good health, preventing and treating obesity and hypertension in suburban areas. The prevalence of diet-related non-communicable diseases has been notably reduced as a result of health promotion programs. A diet high in dietary fiber, rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean meats, fish, legumes, non-tropical vegetable oils, and nuts (in moderation) has been promoted. This needs to be adjusted to take into consideration the required calorie intake, unique dietary preferences based on culture and individual, as well as nutrition therapy for various medical conditions.

References

Rifkin SB. Alma Ata after 40 years: Primary Health Care and Health for All-from consensus to complexity. BMJ Global Health. 2018;3(3):e001188.

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Think your country doesn't have a nutrition problem? Think again. Global Nutrition Report, Washington, DC: IFPRI. 2015.

Munoz N. The Importance of Nutrition in Health Promotion. 2015. Available at: https://info.nhanow.com/learning-leading-blog/the-importance-of-nutrition-in-health-promotion. Accessed on 30 April 2023.

World Health Organization. Noncommunicable diseases, People at Risk. 2022. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/noncommunicable-diseases. Accessed on 21 April 2023.

Popkin BM, Adair LS, Ng SW. Global nutrition transition and the pandemic of obesity in developing countries. Nutrition Rev. 2012;70(1):3-21.

Popkin BM. Nutrition Transition and the Global Diabetes Epidemic. Current Diabetes Reports. 2015;15(9):64.

Winch P, Fanzo J. Health For all: The Role of Food, Nutrition and the Alma Ata Declaration. 2018. Available at: https://www.ahealthierworld. jhu.edu/ahw-updates/food-nutrition-and-alma-ata-declaration. Accessed on 30 April 2023.

Wadden TA, Tronieri JS, Butryn ML. Lifestyle modification approaches for the treatment of obesity in adults. Am Psychologist. 2020;75(2):235-51.

Crossan K, Sheer AJ. Surgical Options In the Treatment of Severe Obesity. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. 2023.

Kraef C, Wood B, Von Philipsborn P, Singh S, Peterson SS, Kallestrup P. Primary health care and nutrition. Bull World Health Organization. 2020;98(12):886-93.

Alberdi G, Begiristain-Zubillaga M. The Promotion of Sustainable Diets in the Healthcare System and Implications for Health Professionals: A Scoping Review. Nutrients. 2021;13(3):747.

Ruthsatz M, Candeias V. Non-communicable disease prevention, nutrition and aging. Acta Biomedica Atenei Parmensis. 2020;91(2):379-88.

Afriyie E, Ahiakpa K, Uyanga VA, Okoye CO. Improving agriculture and food security in Africa: Can the one health approach be the answer? Qeios. 2023;1.

Santos AC, Willumsen J, Meheus F, Ilbawi A, Bull FC. The cost of inaction on physical inactivity to public health-care systems: a population-attributable fraction analysis. Open Access. 2022;109X(22)00464-8.

Roane HS, Ringdahl JL, Falcomata TS. A brief history of Health Promotion, A volume in Practical Resources for the Mental Health Professional. 2015. Available at: https://www.who.int/health-topics/ health-promotion#tab=tab_1. Accessed on 30 April 2023.

Harvard School of Public Health. Healthy Eating Plate. Available at: https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/ nutritionsource/healthy-eating-plate/. Accessed on 23 April 2023.

Pearce C, Rychetnik L, Wutzke S, Wilson A. Obesity prevention and the role of hospital and community-based health services: a scoping review. BMC Health Services Res. 2019;19:453.

Dzoga C, Brown MT, Jerzak J. Health care workforce, Medical Assistant Recruitment and Retention. AMA STEPS Forward. 2021. Available at: https://edhub.ama-assn.org/steps-forward/module/ 2784465. Accessed on 23 April 2023.

Jinming F, Liu Y, Zhang L, Zhou L, Li D, Quan H, et al. Nonpharmacologic Interventions for Reducing Blood Pressure in Adults With Prehypertension to Established Hypertension. J Am Heart Asso. 2020;9(19):e016804.

Shao T, Liang L, Zhou C, Tang Y, Gao W, Tu Y, et al. Short-term efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions for global population with elevated blood pressure: A network meta-analysis. Frontiers in Public Health. 2023;10:2022.

Rupal O, Miriam G. Nonpharmacologic management of hypertension: what works? Am Family Physician. 2015;91(11):772-6.

Verma N, Rastogi S, Chia YC, Siddique S, Turana Y, Cheng HM, et al. Non-pharmacological management of hypertension. J Clin Hypertension (Greenwich). 2021;23(7):1275-83.

Liu X, Byrd JB, Rodriguez CJ. Use of physician-recommended non-pharmacological strategies for hypertension control among hypertensive patients. J Clin Hypertension. 2018;1.

Arnett DK, Blumenthal RS, Albert MA, Buroker AB, Goldberger ZB, Hahn EJ, et al. A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2019;140:e596-646.

Kumar S, Preetha GS. Health Promotion: An Effective Tool for Global Health. Indian J Community Med. 2012;37(1):5-12.

Stella U. Assessment of Obesity, Presumed and Proven Causes and Prevention Strategies: A Review. DO. Advances in Obesity, Weight Management Control. ResearchGate. 2016;05:00121.

Swaminathan S, Dehghan M, Raj JM, Thomas T, Rangarajan. Associations of cereal grains intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality across 21 countries in Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology study: Prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2021;372:m4948.

Black RE, Victora CG, Walker SP, Bhutta ZA, Christian P, de Onis M, et al. Maternal and Child Nutrition Study Group. Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet. 2013;382(9890):427-51.

Ochiai E, Blakey C, McGowan A, Lin Y. The Evolution of the Healthy People Initiative: A Look Through the Decades. J Public Health Management Practice. 2021;27(6):S225-34.

Bassaganya-Riera J, Berry EM, Blaak EE, Burlingame B, Coutre J, Van Eden W, et al. Goals in Nutrition Science 2020-2025. Frontiers Nutr. 2021;1.

Mary RG, Sandra MN. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Revised 2021 Standards of Professional Performance for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (Competent, Proficient, and Expert) in Management of Food and Nutrition Systems. Academy Nutr Dietet. 2021;121(6):1157-74.

Jung EJ, Son SM, Jong-Sook K. The Effect of Sodium Reduction Education Program of a Public Health Center on the Blood Pressure, Blood Biochemical Profile and Sodium Intake of Hypertensive Adults. Korean J Community Nutri. 2012;17(6):752.

Healthy People 2000, Healthy People 2010, and Healthy People. 2020. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/healthy_people/hp2010.htm. Accessed on 24 April, 2023.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice; Committee on Informing the Selection of Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030. Criteria for Selecting the Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2030. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2019. Appendix E, Healthy People 2030 Framework. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK552645/. Accessed on 24 April, 2023.

Clancy C, Goodrich K, Moody-Williams J, Sheares KD, O'Kane ME, Cha S, Agrawal S. Quality, Safety, and Standards Organizations COVID-19 Impact Assessment: Lessons Learned and Compelling Needs. National Academy Med Perspective. 2021;2021:10.31478/202107d.

Frieden TR. Six components necessary for effective public health program implementation. Am J Publ Health. 2014;104(1):17-22.

Common Wealth Fund, 2020 U.S. Health Care from a Global Perspective, 2019: Higher Spending, Worse Outcomes? Issue Briefs. 2020. Available at: https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/issue-briefs/2020/jan/us-health-care-global-perspective-2019. Accessed on 23 April 2023.

Oleribe OO, Taylor-Robinson SD. Before Sustainable Development Goals (SDG): why Nigeria failed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Pan Afr Medical J. 2016;24:156.

Lomazzi Marta, Borisch Bettina and Laaser Ulrich. The Millennium Development Goals: experiences, achievements and what's next. Global Health Action. 2014;7:1.

Kumar S, Kumar N, Vivekadhish S. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): Addressing Unfinished Agenda and Strengthening Sustainable Development and Partnership. Indian J Community Med. 2016;41(1):1-4.

Norman K, Haß U, Pirlich M. Malnutrition in Older Adults-Recent Advances and Remaining Challenges. Nutrients. 2021;13(8):2764.

Shuremu M, Belachew T, Hassen K. Nutritional status and its associated factors among elderly people in Ilu Aba Bor Zone, Southwest Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2023;13(1):e067787.

Kenneth EU, Chinedu UZ, Christian AU, Ezeonu PO, Obaje SG. Analyzing Trio-Anthropometric Predictors of Hypertension: Determining the Susceptibility of Blood Pressure to Sexual Dimorphism in Body Stature. Int J Hypertension. 2021;6.

Mehanna O, El Askary A, Ali E, Esawy BEI, Alla TF, Gharib AF. Impact of Obesity and Its Associated Comorbid Conditions on COVID-19 Presentation. Dove Med Press. 2021;14:409-15.

Chukwu CE, Ebuehi OAT, Ajuluchukwu JNA, Olashore AH. Anthropometric, socio-demographic and biochemical risk factors of hypertension in Lagos, Nigeria. Alexandria J Med. 2021;57(1):44-51.

James RM. Lifestyle Strategies for Risk Factor Reduction, Prevention, and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2018;13(2):204-12.

Brook RD, Appel LJ, Rubenfire M, Ogedegbe G, Bisognano JD, Elliott WJ, et al. Beyond medications and diet: alternative approaches to lowering blood pressure: a scientific statement from the American heart association. Hypertension. 2013;61(6):1360-83.

Ruegsegger GN, Booth FW. Health Benefits of Exercise. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2018;8(7):a029694.

Dhuli K, Naureen Z, Medori MC, Fioretti F, Caruso P, Perrone MA, et al. Physical activity for health. J Preventive Med Hygiene. 2022;63(2-3):E150-59.

Mayo Clinic Staff. High blood pressure dangers: Hypertension's effects on your body. 2023. Available at: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ high-blood-pressure/in-depth/high-blood-pressure/art-20045868. Accessed on 22 April 2023.

Gajewska D, Kucharska A, Kozak M, Niegowska SJ. Effectiveness of Individual Nutrition Education Compared to Group Education, in Improving Anthropometric and Biochemical Indices among Hypertensive Adults with Excessive Body Weight: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2019;11(12):2921.

Kotchen TA. Obesity-related hypertension: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical management. Am J Hypertension. 2010;23(11):1170-8.

Drinkaware. Drinkaware index 2019: analyzing hazardous drinking in Ireland. Dublin: Drinkaware. Available at: https://www.drugsandalcohol.ie/30545/. Accessed on 24 April, 2023.

NHS. Water, drinks and your health. 2019. https://www.nhs.uk/live-well/eat-well/food-guidelines-and-food-labels/water-drinks-nutrition/. Accessed 24 April 2023.

Public Health England. Local action on health inequalities. Improving health literacy to reduce health inequalities. UCL Institute of Health Equity. 2015. Available at: https://assets.publishing. service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/460710/4b_Health_Literacy-Briefing.pdf. Accessed on 24 April 2023.

Schwingshackl L, Chaimani A, Schwedhelm C, Toledo E, Pünsch M, Hoffmann G et al. Comparative effects of different dietary approaches on blood pressure in hypertensive and pre-hypertensive patients: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2019;59(16):2674-87.

Downloads

Published

2023-06-29

How to Cite

Peter, M. B., Nwose, E. U., Ofili, C., & Peters, E. (2023). Nutritional concepts of health promotion in sub urban community: focus on obesity and hypertension. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 10(7), 2618–2625. https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20232062

Issue

Section

Review Articles