Phytochemical screening of Acacia nilotica extract: an in vitro study
Keywords:Acacia nilotica, Dental caries, Phytochemicals
Background: The present study aim was to identify the presence of phytochemical screening of flower extract of Acacia nilotica.
Methods: The flower extract of Acacia nilotica was prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of methanol flower of Acacia nilotica was carried out by using simple chemical tests and compared with ethanol and aquesous extract of the same plant. The antimicrobial testing was done using agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was carried out by micro dilution assay and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was done using colony forming unit (CFU) method. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis.
Results: The results of phytochemical screening of methanol flower extract of Acacia nilotica showed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, glycosides, tannin, terpenoids, steroids whereas ethanol shows the presence of flavonoid, glycosides, tannin, terpenoids, saponin, steroids and aqueous extract shows presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, glycosides, tannin, terpenoids, saponin, steroids. The antibacterial activity of the (flower) extract of Acacia nilotica showed relatively high zone of inhibition (21 mm,19 mm) at 40 mg/ml against S. mutans and L. acidophillus. The MIC OD at 600 nm showed maximum inhibition at 40 mg/ml against S. mutans and L. acidophillius was about 78% and 91% respectively.
Conclusions: The present study signifies the phytochemical screening of Acacia nilotica which could be considered in the evolution of an indigenous herbal mouth rinse or toothpaste as the formulation inhibited all the micro-organisms tested in this study at low concentrations.
Ghanghro AB, Ghanghro IH, Channa MJ, Lanjwani AH, Quresh A. Phytochemical screening and quantitative biochemical assessment of Acacia nilotica (flowers and leaves). Sindh Univ Res J. 2015;47(4)797-800.
Sawant RS, Godghate AG, Sankpal SA, Walaki SA, Kankanwadi SS. Phytochemical analysis of bark of Acacia nilotica. Asian J Plant Sci Res. 2014;4(2):22-4.
Mamta J, Dyoti S, Rajeev N, Abhishek G. Phyto chemicals of medicinal plants. J Pharmacog. 2013;1(6):168-82.
Deshpande SN, Kadam DG. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of Acacia nilotica against Streptococcus mutans. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013;236-8.
Kumar M, Prakash S, Kumari N, Pundir A, Punia S, Saurabh V, et al. Beneficial role of antioxidant secondary metabolites from medicinal plants in maintaining oral health. Antioxidants. 2021;10(7):1061.
Arshad MS, Hussain I, Mahmood MS, Khan MN. Evaluation of antimicrobial potential of Acacia nilotica (kikar) against oral pathogens associated with caries and periodontitis. Pak J Agri Sci. 2017;54(2):423-30.
Pote M, Hirapure P. Antimicrobial potential of Acacia nilotica extracts on few dental pathogens. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2014;5(11):4756-59.
Muddathir AM, Mohieldin EA, Mitsunaga T. In vitro activities of Acacia nilotica (L.) delile bark fractions against oral bacteria, glucosyltransferase and as antioxidant. BMC Complement Med Therap. 2020;20(1):1-9.
Abduljawad AE. Review of some evidenced medicinal activities of Acacia nilotica. Arch Pharma Pract. 2020;11(4):20-5.
Gupta D, Gupta KR. Investigation of antibacterial efficacy of Acacia nilotica against salivary mutans streptococci: a randomized control trial. Gen Dentist. 2015:23-27.
Chandra Shekar BR, Nagarajappa R, Jain R, Singh R, Suma S, Thakur R. Antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, Psidium guajava extracts and their combinations on Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Indian J Dent Res. 2018;29:641-5.
Kumari R, Mishra RC, Sheoran R, Yadav JP. Fractionation of antimicrobial compounds from Acacia nilotica twig extract against oral pathogens. Bioint Res Appl Chem. 2020;10(6):7097-105.
Hameed FR, Mukalaf AA, Kareem AA, Yousif WT, Dhumad BQ. Antimicrobial effect of Acacia nilotica on some gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Al-Mustansiriyah J Sci. 2017;28(3).
Abdulhamid A, Dabai YU, Ismail AM. Preliminary phytochemical screening and antibacterial properties of crude leaves extract and fractions of Acacia nilotica (linn.) World J Pharm Res. 2018;7(5).
Attahiru A, Haruna Y, Muhammad A, Gana A. Phytochemical analysis and antifungal activity of methanol extract of Acacia nilotica leaves. Int J Life Sci Res. 2021;9(1):10-5.