Pulp stones and its relation with co-morbid diseases


  • Majed A. Elyas North Jeddah Specialist Dental Center, King Abdullah Medical Complex, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Hawra H. Al Obaid General Dentist, Al Uwayqilah Hospital, Al Uwayqilah, Saudi Arabia
  • Nesreen S. Aljumaah General Dentist, Prince Mohammed bin Abdulaziz Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Wafa M. Alqahtani General Dentist, Ministry of Health, Abha, Saudi Arabia
  • Ahmed A. Aljafar College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Hofuf, Saudi Arabia
  • Haifa K. Alhasher College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
  • Faisal M. Alqarni College of Dentistry, Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Ashwag H. Alzahib College of Dentistry, Ibn Sina National College, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Noor S. Alyousef Al-Muntazah Primary Healthcare Center, Ministry of Health, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia
  • Khadijah M. Alqarni Al-Muntazah Primary Healthcare Center, Ministry of Health, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia
  • Faisal A. Zuhair General Dentist, Saudi German Hospital, Abha, Saudi Arabia




Pulp, Stone, Systemic, Disease


Pulp stones are nodular, calcified masses that can develop in the pulp of healthy, damaged or even developing teeth. In addition to a number of other factors and idiopathic factors, a number of theories have been put forward about the etiological factors behind the occurrence of pulp stones. These include age, genetic susceptibility, pulp degeneration, pulp circulatory disturbances, inductive interactions between pulp tissue and epithelium, and orthodontic tooth movements. Recently, pulp stones development has been linked to a number of systemic disorders, including diabetes, renal diseases, autoimmune diseases, and coronary artery disease. Osteopontin appears to contribute to plaque calcification and is a component of atheromatous plaques. Calcifications have also been noted in renal and carotid arteries with osteopontin, and numerous studies have shown a relationship between atheromatous plaques in arteries and the development of pulp stones. The development of pulp stones, kidney stones, joint calcification, and atheromatous plaques in arteries are thought to share the same mechanism of apatite formation. It has been hypothesized that the biological apatite that nanobacteria produce on their cell walls, which is comparable to kidney stones and calcified tissue, may be a common cause of both pulp stones and atheromatous plaques seen in coronary artery disease. As per the findings of several studies, pulp stones are more severe in coronary artery disease patients. The purpose of this research is to review the available information about pulp stones and its relation with co-morbid diseases.



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How to Cite

A. Elyas, M., H. Al Obaid, H., S. Aljumaah, N., M. Alqahtani, W., A. Aljafar, A., K. Alhasher, H., M. Alqarni, F., H. Alzahib, A., S. Alyousef, N., M. Alqarni, K., & A. Zuhair, F. (2023). Pulp stones and its relation with co-morbid diseases. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 10(2), 883–886. https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230018



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