Effectiveness and satisfaction of home-based external bleaching
Keywords:Tooth bleaching, Over the counter hydrogen peroxide, Carbamide peroxide, Esthetic dentistry, Cosmetic dentistry
Hydrogen peroxide is the main ingredient in bleaching products (BP), and based on the settings of the reaction, can produce (per-)hydroxyl anions, superoxide anions, and other radicals. The radical-related oxidative mechanism can trigger the breakage of molecular bonds in enameller and dentinal stains, while the exact process is not entirely grasped. Products as a consequence look less colorful. The amount of the active bleaching component, the likelihood of BP interaction with discolorations, and the contact duration all affect the effectiveness of the bleaching treatment. Effectiveness also depends on a number of variables, including the individual's age, the type of staining, and the number of bleaching treatments. A significant number of local adverse effects have been recorded with over-the-counter items due to poorly fitted tray, adjuvants such as binders, preservatives, and flavors as well as a low pH, coexisting gingivitis, abrasion, and erosion. In cases of the coupled utilization of tobacco and excessive alcohol intake because tobacco users demonstrate lower levels of hypersensitivity to the BP and may be heavily influenced by the positive cosmetic effects, they must particularly be counseled against getting bleaching done as the combination has been found to pose elevated oral carcinoma risk. Overall, current literature has found a positive relation between procedure efficacy and patient satisfaction.
Dahl J, Pallesen U. Tooth bleaching-a critical review of the biological aspects. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2003;14(4):292-304.
Hasson H, Ismail A, Neiva G. Home‐based chemically‐induced whitening of teeth in adults. Cochrane Database Systematic Rev. 2006(4).
Heinisch C, Larsson K, Mattsson J, Karlsson S, Alstad T, Bruzell E. Patient satisfaction and complications of over-the-counter bleaching products. Oral Hyg Health. 2015;3(1000176):2332-0702.1000176.
Demarco FF, Meireles SS, Masotti AS. Over-the-counter whitening agents: a concise review. Brazilian Oral Res. 2009;23:64-70.
Burrows S. A review of the efficacy of tooth bleaching. Dental Update. 2009;36(9):537-51.
Leonard RH, Sharma A, Haywood vB. Use of different concentrations of carbamide peroxide for bleaching teeth: an in vitro study. Quintessence Int. 1998;29(8).
Ziebolz D, Helms K, Hannig C, Attin T. Efficacy and oral side effects of two highly concentrated tray-based bleaching systems. Clin Oral Investigations. 2007;11(3):267-75.
Browning WD, Blalock JS, Frazier KB, Downey MC, Myers ML. Duration and timing of sensitivity related to bleaching. J Esthetic Restorative Dentistr. 2007;19(5):256-64.
Tam L. Clinical trial of three 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching products. J-Canadian Dental Asso. 1999;65:201-7.
Leonard Jr RH, Haywood vB, Phillips C. Risk factors for developing tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation associated with nightguard vital bleaching. Quintessence Int. 1997;28(8).
Bruzell E, Pallesen U, Thoresen NR, Wallman C, Dahl J. Side effects of external tooth bleaching: a multi-centre practice-based prospective study. Bri Dental J. 2013;215(9):E17.
Van der Burgt T, Ten Bosch J, Borsboom P, Kortsmit W. A comparison of new and conventional methods for quantification of tooth color. J Prosthetic Dentistr. 1990;63(2):155-62.
Paul S, Peter A, Pietrobon N, Hämmerle C. Visual and spectrophotometric shade analysis of human teeth. J Dental Res. 2002;81(8):578-82.
Stephen J. Use of a reflectance spectrophotometer in evaluating shade change resulting from tooth‐whitening products. J Esthetic Restorative Dentistr. 2003;15:S42-8.
Leonard Jr RH, Garland GK, Eagle JC, Caiman DJ. Safety issues when using a 16% carbamide peroxide whitening solution. J Esthetic Restorative Dentistr. 2002;14(6):358-67.
Matis BA, Mousa HN, Cochran MA, Eckert GJ. Clinical evaluation of bleaching agents of different concentrations. Quintessence Int. 2000;31(5).
Schulte JR, Morrissette DB, Gasior EJ, Czajewski MV. The effects of bleaching application time on the dental pulp. J Am Dental Asso. 1994;125(10):1330-1335.
Li Y, Greenwall L. Safety issues of tooth whitening using peroxide-based materials. Bri Dental J. 2013;215(1):29-34.
Paul-Dauphin A, Guillemin F, Virion J-M, Briançon S. Bias and precision in visual analogue scales: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150(10):1117-27.
Auschill TM, Hellwig E, Schmidale S, Sculean A, Arweiler NB. Efficacy, side-effects and patients’ acceptance of different bleaching techniques (OTC, in-office, at-home). Oper Dent. 2005;30(2):156-63.
Palé M, Mayoral JR, Llopis J, Vallès M, Basilio J, Roig M. Evaluation of the effectiveness of an in-office bleaching system and the effect of potassium nitrate as a desensitizing agent. Odontology. 2014;102(2):203-10.
Gurgan S, Cakir FY, Yazici E. Different light-activated in-office bleaching systems: a clinical evaluation. Lasers Med Sci. 2010;25(6):817-22.
Wickholm S, Lahtinen A, Ainamo A, Rautalahti M. Adverse effects of Swedish smokeless tobacco" snus". Duodecim; Laaketieteellinen Aikakauskirja. 2012;128(10):1089-96.
Leonard Jr R. Efficacy, longevity, side effects, and patient perceptions of nightguard vital bleaching. Compendium of continuing education in dentistry (Jamesburg, NJ: 1995). 1998;19(8):766-70.