An overview of pigmented lesions of the oral cavity

Authors

  • Dalal Mufadhi Alanazi Dental Department, Eastern Riyadh Dental Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Badria Moashi Alanazi Dental Administration Department, Eastern Riyadh Dental Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Hilalah Masoud Alanazi Dental Department, Eastern Riyadh Dental Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Ghada Khairallah Al-Shahrani Dental Department, Directorate of Health Affairs, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
  • Abeer Abdulhai Alanazi Dental Department, Eastern Riyadh Dental Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Tamam Mohammed Alenazy Dental Department, Eastern Riyadh Dental Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Amirah Hamoud Alruwaili Dental Department, Eastern Riyadh Dental Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Reem Awwadh Almutairi Dental Department, Eastern Riyadh Dental Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Suad Murdhi Alanazi Dental Department, Al Yamamah Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223270

Keywords:

Oral pathology, Oral medicine, Pigmentation, Melanin, Diagnosis

Abstract

It might be difficult to diagnose pigmented lesions of the mouth and perioral regions. Although several lesions may be correctly identified on the basis of clinical findings alone and while epidemiology may be helpful in guiding the clinician, the histological examination is typically necessary for the final diagnosis. Oral hyperpigmentation may present exogenously/ endogenously; pathologically/physiologically. The differential diagnosis depends on factors like medication usage, familial history in addition to the position, spread, and length as well as hue and pattern variations. Physiological pigmentation, melanotic macule, melanocytic nevus, smoker's melanosis, oral melanoacanthoma, pigmentation caused by foreign matter or medicines, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Addison's disease, and oral melanoma are examples of dark or black pigmented discolorations that can be unifocal, multifocal, or dispersed macular lesions.

References

Gaeta GM, Satriano RA, Baroni A. Oral pigmented lesions. Clin Dermatol. 2002;20(3):286-8.

Meleti M, Vescovi P, Mooi WJ, Van der Waal I. Pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa and perioral tissues: a flow-chart for the diagnosis and some recommendations for the management. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endodontol. 2008;105(5):606-16.

Buchner A, Hansen LS. Melanotic macule of the oral mucosa: a clinicopathologic study of 105 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1979;48(3):244-9.

Lenane P, Powell F. Oral pigmentation. J Eur Academy Dermatol Venereol. 2000;14(6):448-65.

Ishikawa I, Aoki A, Takasaki AA. Potential applications of Erbium: YAG laser in periodontics. J Periodontal Res. 2004;39(4):275-85.

Hedin CA. Smokers' melanosis: occurrence and localization in the attached gingiva. Arch Dermatol. 1977;113(11):1533-8.

Brown FH, Houston GD. Smoker's melanosis. A case report. J Periodontol. 1991;62(8):524-7.

Hedin C, Pindborg J, Axell T. Disappearance of smoker's melanosis after reducing smoking. J Oral Pathol Med. 1993;22(5):228-30.

Buchner A, Hansen LS. Pigmented nevi of the oral mucosa: A clinicopathologic study of 36 new cases and review of 155 cases from the literature: Part I: A clinicopathologic study of 36 new cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1987;63(5):566-72.

Contreras E, Carlos R. Melanoacantosis oral (melanoacantoma): reporte de un caso y revision de literatura. Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal (Ed impresa). 2005;10(1):09-12.

Fatahzadeh M, Sirois DA. Multiple intraoral melanoacanthomas: a case report with unusual findings. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiol Endodontol. 2002;94(1):54-6.

Wright JM. Intraoral melanoacanthoma: A reactive melanocytic hyperplasia: Case report. J Periodontol. 1988;59(1):53-5.

Kim H. Generalized oral and cutaneous hyperpigmentation in Addison's disease. Odonto-stomatologie tropicale-Trop Dental J. 1988;11(3):87-90.

Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CM, Bouquot JE. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. 2 [sup] nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders. 2002: 337-369.

Hemminki A, Markie D, Tomlinson I. A serine/threonine kinase gene defective in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Nature. 1998;391(6663):184-7.

Hemminki A, Tomlinson I, Markie D. Localization of a susceptibility locus for Peutz-Jeghers syndrome to 19p using comparative genomic hybridization and targeted linkage analysis. Nature Genetics. 1997;15(1):87-90.

Hemminki A. The molecular basis and clinical aspects of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Cellular Molecular Life Sci CMLS. 1999;55(5):735-0.

McGrath DR, Spigelman AD. Preventive measures in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Familial Can. 2001;1(2):123-7.

Merchant HW. Oral pigmentation associated with bronchogenic carcinoma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1973;36(5):675-7.

Fornatora ML, Reich RF, Haber S, Solomon F, Freedman PD. Oral melanoacanthoma: a report of 10 cases, review of the literature, and immunohistochemical analysis for HMB-45 reactivity. Am J Dermatopathol. 2003;25(1):12-5.

Barrett A, Raja A. The immunohistochemical identification of human oral mucosal melanocytes. Arch Oral Biol. 1997;42(1):77-81.

Sharma VK, Dhar S, Gill AN. Drug related involvement of specific sites in fixed eruptions: a statistical evaluation. J Dermatol. 1996;23(8):530-34.

Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CM, Chi AC. Oral and maxillofacial pathology. Elsevier Health Sci. 2015.

Wood NK, Goaz PW, Sawyer DR. Intraoral brownish, bluish, or black conditions. Differential Diagnosis of Oral and Maxillofacial Lesions Saint Louis: Mosby-Year Book. 1997:82-208.

Ioffreda MD, Gordon CA, Adams DR, Naides SJ, Miller JJ. Black tongue. Arch Dermatol. 2001;137(7):968-9.

Tamam L, Annagur BB. Black hairy tongue associated with olanzapine treatment. Mt Sinai J Med. 2006;73(6):891-4.

Mirbod SM, Ahing SI. Tobacco-associated lesions of the oral cavity: Part I. Nonmalignant lesions. J Canadian Dental Association). 2000;66(5):252-6.

Downloads

Published

2022-12-29

How to Cite

Alanazi, D. M., Alanazi, B. M., Alanazi, H. M., Al-Shahrani, G. K., Alanazi, A. A., Alenazy, T. M., Alruwaili, A. H., Almutairi, R. A., & Alanazi, S. M. (2022). An overview of pigmented lesions of the oral cavity. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 10(1), 336–341. https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223270

Issue

Section

Review Articles