Anthropometric measures in Bangladeshi schoolchildren to determine body composition and nutritional status: a descriptive cross-sectional study
Keywords:Anthropometry, Nutritional status, Children, School health, Bangladesh
Background: The development of improved health and nutrition in adulthood is significantly influenced by early nutrition. It is, however, almost ever investigated how to determine the nutritional condition of Bangladeshi children using anthropometric measurements including height, weight, biepicondylar width of the humerus and femur, BMI, and BSA.
Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 government elementary school students aged between 9 and 12 years in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS.
Results: For the B1 and B2 groups, heights ranged from 124.00 to 151.00 cm and 129.00 to 157.00 cm, respectively. Height ranges for the C1 and C2 groups were respectively 129.50-153.00 cm and 129.00-160.00 cm. The B2 study group had a greater weight than the B1 study group (p<0.001), where C2 was heavier than the C1 research group (p<0.001). The A1 study group's biepicondylar width of the humerus was greater than the A2 study group's (p<0.05) and biepicondylar humerus width was greater in the B2 study group compared to the B1 study group (p<0.05). On the other hand, the B1 study group's biepicondylar femur width was higher than the B2 study group (p<0.05). The B2 group's body surface area was larger than the B1 study group's (p<0.001) and body surface area of C2 group was greater than C1 study group (p<0.001).
Conclusions: Analyses of body composition and anthropometric measurements suggest that children and adolescents' nutritional status was below the reference requirement, according to the results of the current study.
Bhattacharya A, Pal B, Mukherjee S, Roy SK. Assessment of nutritional status using anthropometric variables by multivariate analysis. BMC Public Health. 2019;19:1-9.
Misra A, Pandey RM, Rama Devi J, Sharma R, Vikram NK, Khanna N. High prevalence of diabetes, obesity and dyslipidaemia in urban slum population in northern India. Int J Obes. 2001;25:1722-9.
Anthropometry procedures manual. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhanes/nhanes_03_04/BM.pdf, Accessed on 20 November 2021.
Norgan NG. Body mass index and nutritional status: the effect of adjusting body mass index for the relative sitting height on estimates of the prevalence of chronic energy deficiency, overweight and obesity. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;4(1):137-9.
Norgan NG. Population differences in body composition in relation to the body mass index. Eur J Clin Nutr 1994;48(3):S10-25.
Gallagher D, Visser M, Sepúlveda D, Pierson RN, Harris T, Heymsfieid SB. How useful is body mass index for comparison of body fatness across age, sex, and ethnic groups? Am J Epidemiol. 1996;143:228-39.
Rolland-Cachera MF, Cole TJ, Sempé M, Tichet J, Rossignol CAC. Body Mass Index variations: centiles from birth to 87 years. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1999;23:13-21.
Woodruff BA, Duffield A. Anthropometric assessment of nutritional status in adolescent populations in humanitarian emergencies. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56:1108-18.
Nishida C, Barba C, Cavalli-Sforza T. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet. 2004;363:157-63.
Burton RF. Estimating body surface area from mass and height: Theory and the formula of Du Bois and Du Bois. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;35:170-84.
Flint B, Hall CA. Body surface area. USA: StatPearls Publishers; 2020.
Sigurdsson TS, Lindberg L. Six commonly used empirical body surface area formulas disagreed in young children undergoing corrective heart surgery. Acta Paediatr. 2020;109:1838-46.
Retrouvey H, Chan J, Shahrokhi S. Comparison of two-dimensional methods versus three-dimensional scanning systems in the assessment of total body surface area estimation in burn patients. Burns. 2018;44: 195-200.
Weiner JS. Practical human biology. London: Academic Press; 1981.
Anam MR, Akter S, Hossain F. Association of sleep duration and sleep quality with overweight/obesity among adolescents of Bangladesh: a multilevel analysis. BMC Public Health. 2022;22:1-9.
Salvi S, Kumar A, Puri H. Association between air pollution, body mass index, respiratory symptoms, and asthma among adolescent school children living in Delhi, India. Lung India. 2021;38:408.
Acharya U, Nakanishi J. Body mass index (BMI) of vegetarian and non-vegetarian children in Nepal. J Heal Promot. 2021;9:55-64.