Prevalence of developmental anomalies among infants 0-12 months in Mehsana district, north Gujarat, India
Keywords:Bohn’s nodule, Breastfeeding difficulties, Epstein pearl, Natal teeth, TT-lip tie
Background: Developmental anomalies like Epstein pearl, Bohn’s nodule, gingival cyst, mucocele, natal teeth, tongue tie (TT), lip tie manifest in the neonate. A majority of them are benign and asymptomatic commonly resolving without any intervention. Some anomalies may require surgical intervention to avoid breast-feeding difficulties. Extensive clinical examination and knowledge of various lesions are essential for accurate diagnosis, management and parental advice. Aim was to determine the prevalence of developmental anomalies among infants (0-12months) and its effects on breastfeeding.
Methods: After approval of IRB (Institutional Review Board), multistage sampling was performed to include the population of Mehsana district by dividing the district into 3 zones (north, central, south). 480 Infants were included and examined in the study according to selection criteria. Infants with cleft lip palate were excluded from the study. Intraoral examination was performed and assessment of TT, lip tie was done using Hazelbacker (HB) criteria and Kotlow’s classification. Informed written consent was obtained from parents. Mothers were asked about difficulties during breastfeeding via questionnaire. The option for surgical intervention was given to the parents when indicated.
Results: A total of 480 infants (male 297 and female 183) were examined. The prevalence of Epstein pearls was 39.4%, Bohn’s nodule 6.5%, mucocele 1.5%, gingival cyst 0.4%, TT 5.2%, class III and class IV lip tie 94.1%, natal teeth 0.4%. The total, 14.8% infants who had lip tie, struggled to latch on to the breast while nursing which was statistically (0.02) significant.
Conclusions: The prevalence of class III and class IV lip tie (94.1%) and Epstein pearls (39.4%) was high as compared to other developmental anomalies among the infants of Mehsana district.
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