Quality of life, stress, occupation status of immigrants: predictors of psychological health condition among the gulf return migrants in India


  • Snigdha Banerjee Research Scholar, International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India




Gulf countries, Occupational status, Quality of life, Psychological health, Return migrant, Stress


Background: The instances of mental health problems are much more frequent among migrants who have faced adversity at the destination as they employed in precarious or insecure jobs. Those who returned as a failure, feeling valueless upon return and lack of suitable job at the place of origin triggered the feeling of distress among the returnees. Therefore, the main objective of this paper was to examine the quality of life, occupational status and its impact on psychological health condition of the gulf return migrants in India.

Methods: 330 gulf returnees were interviewed with the help of a structured interview schedule and in-depth interviews were also conducted. Binary logistic regression has been used to determine the significant predictors of self-rated psychological health condition among the return migrants. For this purpose, the self-reporting questionnaire used to understand the mental health status.

Results: High prevalence (60%) of mental health distress among the returnees was observed. Factors such as age at the time of return, typology of returnees, feeling sick in the destination country, duration of stay in destination, occupational status after return and reasons for return were found to be significant predictors of mental health distress.

Conclusions: The returnees deal with significant mental health distress. Special attention should be paid on this issue. Migrants should access post return counselling related to job market and mental health services in origin.


Moyce SC, Schenker M. Migrant workers and their occupational health and safety. Ann Rev Public Health. 2018;39:351-65.

Zeleke W, Minaye A, Kygana G. Mental health and somatic distress among Ethiopian migrant returnees from the Middle East. Int J Ment Health Psychiatr. 2015;1:2.

IOM. Standing Committee on Programmes and Finance SCPF/12. Migration and health. IOM’s programmes and perspectives: towards a multi-sectoral approach. Geneva: International Organization for Migration; 2008.

Davies AA, Borland RM, Blake C, West HE. The dynamics of health and return migration. PLoS Med. 2011;8(6):e1001046.

Hargreaves S, Rustage K, Nellums LB, McAlpine A, Pocock N, Devakumar D, et al. Occupational health outcomes among international migrant workers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2019;7(7):e872-82.

Zapata-Villa C, Agudelo-Suárez AA, Cardona-Arango D, Ronda-Pérez E. Health status and experience of the migrant workers returned from Spain to Colombia: A qualitative approach. J Immigr Minor Health. 2018;20(6):1404-14.

World Health Organization. Gender disparities in mental health. World Health Organization. Department of Mental Health and Substance Dependence. Geneva, Switzerland; 2004.

Petreski M. Does Return Migration Affect Health Outcomes in Macedonia? CEI Working Paper Series 2016-5, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University. 2016.

Quandt SA, Arcury‐Quandt AE, Lawlor EJ, Carrillo L, Marín AJ, Grzywacz JG, et al. 3‐D jobs and health disparities: The health implications of Latino chicken catchers’ working conditions. Am J Indust Med. 2013;56(2):206-15.

Ullmann SH, Goldman N, Massey DS. Healthier before they migrate, less healthy when they return? The health of returned migrants in Mexico. Soc Sci Med. 2011;73(3):421-8.

Lu Y, Qin L. Healthy migrant and salmon bias hypotheses: a study of health and internal migration in China. Soc Sci Med. 2014;102:41-8.

Hunter LM, Simon DH. Might climate change the “healthy migrant” effect? Glob Environ Change. 2017;47:133-42.

Wiking E, Johansson SE, Sundquist J. Ethnicity, acculturation, and self-reported health. A population-based study among immigrants from Poland, Turkey, and Iran in Sweden. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004;58(7):574-82.

Tilahun M, Workicho A, Angaw DA. Common mental disorders and its associated factors and mental health care services for Ethiopian labour migrants returned from Middle East countries in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. BMC Health Serv Res. 2020;20(1):1-3.

Paudyal P, Kulasabanathan K, Cassell JA, Memon A, Simkhada P, Wasti SP. Health and well-being issues of Nepalese migrant workers in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries and Malaysia: a systematic review. BMJ Open. 2020;10(10):e038439.

Chapagai M, Pant SB, Tulachan P, Dhungana S. Psychiatric morbidity among repatriated Nepalese foreign labor migrants- a hospital-based study. J Inst Med. 2017;41(1).

Donato KM, Caron L, Hamilton E. Migration and mental health in Mexico: domestic migrants, return US migrants, and non-migrants. Front Psychiatr. 2020;10:970.

Arachchi SH. Violation of migrant women worker’s rights in middle-east. Int J Arts Commerce. 2013;2(2):332-47.

Nisrane BL, Ossewaarde R, Need A. The exploitation narratives and coping strategies of Ethiopian women return migrants from the Arabian Gulf. Gender Place Culture. 2020;27(4):568-86.

Simkhada P, Van Teijlingen E, Gurung M, Wasti SP. A survey of health problems of Nepalese female migrants workers in the Middle-East and Malaysia. BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2018;18(1):1-7.

Kuhn R, Barham T, Razzaque A, Turner P. Health and well-being of male international migrants and non-migrants in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional follow-up study. PLoS Med. 2020;17(3):e1003081.




How to Cite

Banerjee, S. (2022). Quality of life, stress, occupation status of immigrants: predictors of psychological health condition among the gulf return migrants in India. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 9(12), 4541–4548. https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223211



Original Research Articles