DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222386
Published: 2022-09-28

Intra-abdominal compartment syndrome: risk factors, complications and treatment

Hisham A. Almottowa, Mohammad E. Nasser, Mohammad G. Altamimi, Fatma A. Alfodari, Raghad K. Alsherbi, Sarah H. Alherz, Ali R. Aldandan, Qanot N. Alshatti, Reem M. Alyousef, Ghadi A. Alsaedi, Maysa F. Alhilali, Hanouf S. Alsharif

Abstract


An elevation in intra-abdominal pressure is the clinical condition referred as abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). The prevalence varies depending on the patient characteristics considered, exponentially rising in life-threatening situations such as trauma, shock and burn patients. The syndrome can also occur after surgical operations like abdominal organ transplantation, post-transplant kidney syndrome among various others. All physiological systems, but particularly the cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, and neurological systems, are impacted by ACS. Blood flow to numerous organs is influenced by ACS and intra-abdominal hypertension. Recognizing and identifying ACS, its risk factors, and clinical symptoms can help to lower the associated morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this research is to review the available information about ACS: risk factors, complications and treatment. ACS is a fatal condition if not diagnosed and treated timely. Patients who have undergone extensive abdominal surgery, experienced septic issues, received intensive fluid replacement, sustained abdominal trauma are at an increased risk of developing ACS. Multiple-organ failure, prolonged recovery, acute kidney injury, low cardiac output, elevated cranial pressure and respiratory distress are the complications of ACS. ACS can occur regardless of the primary diagnosis or treating medical speciality. Surgical decompression, vascular volume replacement, prokinetic drugs, efficient curarization, and percutaneous drainage of large-volume ascites are the treatment strategies for ACS. Combining the underlying disease's therapy approach, patient stabilization, and ACS management is necessary to establish the best course of care. Early detection of ACS is essential for management and the treatment of the patients.


Keywords


Abdominal compartment syndrome, Risk, Treatment, Surgery

Full Text:

PDF

References


Pereira BM. Abdominal compartment syndrome and intra-abdominal hypertension. Curr Opinion Crit Care. 2019;25(6):688-96.

Deenichin GP. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Surg Today. 2008;38(1):5-19.

Bailey J, Shapiro MJ. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Crit Care (London, England). 2000;4(1):23-9.

Strang SG, Van Lieshout EM, Van Waes OJ, Verhofstad MH. Prevalence and mortality of abdominal compartment syndrome in severely injured patients: A systematic review. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016;81(3):585-92.

An G, West MA. Abdominal compartment syndrome: a concise clinical review. Crit Care Med. 2008;36(4):1304-10.

Sosa G, Gandham N, Landeras V, Calimag AP, Lerma E. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Disease-a-Month. 2019;65(1):5-19.

Montalvo-Jave EE, Espejel-Deloiza M, Chernitzky-Camaño J, Peña-Pérez CA, Rivero-Sigarroa E, Ortega-León LH. Abdominal compartment syndrome: Current concepts and management. Revista de gastroenterologia de Mexico (English). 2020;85(4):443-51.

Carr JA. Abdominal compartment syndrome: a decade of progress. J Am Coll Surgeons. 2013;216(1):135-46.

Hecker A, Hecker B, Hecker M, Riedel JG, Weigand MA, Padberg W. Acute abdominal compartment syndrome: current diagnostic and therapeutic options. Langenbeck's Arch Surg. 2016;401(1):15-24.

Popescu GA, Bara T, Rad P. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome as a Multidisciplinary Challenge. A Literature Review. J Crit Care Med (Universitatea de Medicina si Farmacie din Targu-Mures). 2018;4(4):114-9.

Rajasurya V, Surani S. Abdominal compartment syndrome: Often overlooked conditions in medical intensive care units. World J Gastroenterol. 2020;26(3):266-78.

Leon M, Chavez L, Surani S. Abdominal compartment syndrome among surgical patients. World J Gastrointestinal Surg. 2021;13(4):330-9.

Ersryd S, Djavani Gidlund K, Wanhainen A, Smith L, Björck M. Editor's Choice - Abdominal Compartment Syndrome after Surgery for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Subgroups, Risk Factors, and Outcome. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2019;58(5):671-9.

Newman RK DN, Dominique E. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome. StatPearls. 2022.

Mohmand H, Goldfarb S. Renal dysfunction associated with intra-abdominal hypertension and the abdominal compartment syndrome. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22(4):615-21.

Hedenstierna G, Larsson A. Influence of abdominal pressure on respiratory and abdominal organ function. Curr Opinion Crit care. 2012;18(1):80-5.

Yin J, Pan X, Jia J, Sun S, Wan B. Comparison of pressure‑regulated volume control ventilation and pressure control ventilation in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome. Exp Ther Med. 2019;17(3):1952-8.

De Laet IE, Malbrain MLNG, De Waele JJ. A Clinician’s Guide to Management of Intra-abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Critically Ill Patients. Crit Care. 2020;24(1):97.

Siebert M, Le Fouler A, Sitbon N, Cohen J, Abba J, Poupardin E. Management of abdominal compartment syndrome in acute pancreatitis. J Visceral Surg. 2021;158(5):411-9.

Chiara O, Cimbanassi S, Boati S, Bassi G. Surgical management of abdominal compartment syndrome. Minerva anestesiologica. 2011;77(4):457-62.

Maffongelli A, Fazzotta S, Palumbo VD, et al. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: diagnostic evaluation and possible treatment. La Clinica terapeutica. 2020;171(2):156-60.

Padar M, Reintam Blaser A, Talving P, Lipping E, Starkopf J. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: Improving Outcomes With A Multidisciplinary Approach - A Narrative Review. J Multidisciplinary Healthcare. 2019;12:1061-74.