India’s performance in achieving the targets of sustainable development goal-3 and the national health policy 2017 based on NFHS data
Keywords:India, National Health Policy 2017, NFHS, Sustainable development goal 3
Background: India is committed to pursue the sustainable development goals (SDGs) of the UN agenda 2030. Our objective is to evaluate India’s required progress rate for achieving the health-related targets under SDG 3 and the national health policy of India 2017.
Methods: The data were collected from the reports of NFHS-4 and NFHS-5. Targets were taken from the United Nations SDG 2030 and the national health policy of India, 2017. When target is 100 percent, the annual rate of progress = [(Xt1 – Xt0)/ 100- Xt0] * [1/ (t1 – t0)]. Here t0 is the survey period of NFHS-4 and t1 is the survey period of NFHS-5. Xt1 and Xt0 represent the indicator’s values for the corresponding years. The rate of progress necessary to meet the target by the target year (α) = (Xtg – Xt1) / Xt1 where Xtg is the achievable value of an indicator in the target year and Xt1 is the value of the base year.
Results: The required rate of progress to achieve the targets of SDG-3 was considerably higher than the current rate in case of neo-natal mortality rate, maternal mortality ratio, standard antenatal care visits, HIV/AIDS awareness, and households using clean energy for cooking and having health insurance. The targets of infant mortality rate and MMR of national health policy of India 2017 have not been achieved.
Conclusions: Government should immediately intervene where the required rate of progress to achieve the health-related targets of SDG-3 and national health policy of India, 2017 is considerably lagging.
United Nations. Transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development. 2015. A/RES/70/1. Available from: https://sustainable development.un.org/content/documents/21252030%20Agenda%20for%20Sustainable%20Development%20web.pdf. Accessed on 30 August 2020.
UN Sustainable Development Group. The Cooperation Framework. 2022. Available from: https://unsdg.un.org/2030-agenda/cooperation-framework. Accessed on 8 February 2022.
UN India. NITI Aayog and United Nations in India sign Sustainable Development Framework for 2018-2022. 2018. Available from: https://pib.gov.in/ newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=183795. Accessed on 2 February 2022.
Government of India. National Health Policy 2017. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Government of India. 2017. Available from: https://www.nhp.gov.in/nhpfiles/national_health_policy_2017.pdf. Accessed on 3 April 2020.
International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and ICF. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4), 2015-16: India. Mumbai: IIPS. 2017. Available from: http://rchiips.org/nfhs/NFHS-4Reports/ India.pdf. Accessed on 10 February 2022.
International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and ICF. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5), 2019-21: India: Volume I. Mumbai: IIPS. 2021. Available from: http://rchiips.org/nfhs/NFHS-5Reports/NFHS-5_INDIA_REPORT.pdf. Accessed on 9 September 2022.
International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS). National Family Health Survey (MCH and Family Planning), India, 1992-93. Bombay: IIPS. 1995. Available from: http://rchiips.org/nfhs /pub_nfhs-1.shtml. Accessed on 10 February 2022.
Office of the Registrar General, India. Sample Registration System (SRS)- Special Bulletin on Maternal Mortality in India 2017-19. New Delhi. 2022. Available from: https://censusindia.gov.in/ nada/index.php/catalog/40525. Accessed on 8 August 2022
Anand S. The concern for equity in health. In: Anand S, Peter F, Sen A, Editors. Public health, ethics and equity. New Delhi: Oxford University Press; 2006:15-20.
UNFPA. International Conference on Population and Development ICPD’94: Summary of the Programme of action. 1994. Available from: http://www.partners-popdev.org/icpd/ICPD_POA_ summary.pdf. Accessed on 23 June 2022
Priyadarshini, Manasa GM. A study on reproductive and child programme – Phase I and Phase II. J Emerg Tech Innov Res. 2019;6(5):1357-62.
Paul VK, Sachdev HS, Mavalankar D, Ramachandran P, Sankar MJ, Bhandari N, et al. Reproductive health, and child health and nutrition in India: meeting the challenge. Lancet. 2011;377(9762):332-49.
Sachdev Y, Dasgupta J. Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme. Med J Armed Forces India. 2001;57(2):139-43.
Caldwell JC. Route to low mortality in poor countries. Popul Develop Rev. 1986;12(2):171-220.
Vikram K, Vanneman R. Maternal education and the multidimensionality of child health outcomes in India. J Biosoc Sci. 2020;52(1):57-77.
Jejeebhoy SJ. Wife-beating in rural India: a husband’s right? Evidence from survey data. Econom Polit Week. 1998;33(15):855-62.
Patel KK, Kumar M. Differential and determinants of neonatal mortality: a comparative study in northern and southern regions of India. Indian J Community Med. 2021;46(3):405-10.
Reddy KS, Shah B, Varghese C, Ramadoss A. Chronic diseases 3: responding to the threat of chronic diseases in India. Lancet. 2005;366(9498):1744-9.
Menon GR, Singh L, Sharma P, Yadav P, Sharma S, Kalaskar S, et al. National burden estimates of healthy life lost in India, 2017: an analysis using direct mortality data and indirect disability data. Lancet Glob Health 2019;7(12):E1675-84.
Nethan S, Sinha D, Mehrotra R. Non communicable disease risk factors and their trends in India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prevent. 2017;18(7):2005-10.
Pradeepa R, Mohan V. Epidemiology of type 2 diabetes in India. Indian J Opthalmol. 2021;69:2932-8.
Kumar AS, Sinha N. Cardiovascular disease in India: a 360-degree overview. Med J Armed Forces India. 2020;76(1):1-3.
Sahu D, Kumar P, Chandra N, Shobini R, Shukla DK, Venkatesh S, et al. Findings from the 2017 HIV estimation round and trend analysis of key indicators 2010-17: Evidence for prioritizing HIV/AIDS programme in India. Indian J Med Res. 2020;151(6):562-70.
Ranjan R, Singh S. Household cooking fuel patterns in rural India: Pre-and post-Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana. Indian J Hum Develop. 2020;14(3):518-26.
National Health Accounts Technical Secretariat (NHATS). National Health Accounts Estimates for India FY 2017-18. National Health Accounts Technical Secretariat (NHATS), National Health Systems Resource Centre (NHSRC), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), Government of India. 2021. Available from: https://nhsrcindia.org/sites/default/files/2021-11/National%20Health%20Accounts-%202017-18.pdf. Accessed on 14 February 2022.
Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana National portal of India. Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana: Health insurance for the poor. Available from: https://www.india.gov.in/spotlight/rashtriya-swasthya-bima-yojana. Accessed on 9 September 2022.
Thampi JG, Hadaye R. Attitude towards and utilization of health insurance in a metropolitan city: a cross-sectional study. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2019;6(9):3922-7.
Bonds S. Food for thought: Evaluating the impact of India’s Mid-Day Meal Programme on Educational Attainment. Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley. 2012.
Shiffman S, Balabanis M. Do drinking and smoking go together? Alcohol Health Res World. 1996;20(2):107-10.
Gordon T, Balakrishnan K, Dey S, Rajagopalan S, Thornburg J, Thurston G, et al. Air pollution health research priorities for India: Perspectives of the Indo-U.S. Communities of Researchers. Environ Int 2018;119:100-8.