Readmission rates and risk factors associated with emergency surgeries


  • Mohammad S. Siddiqui Department of General Surgery, King Fahad General Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Abdulkarim A. Albawardi Department of General Surgery, Qariyat Al Ulya General Hospital, Qariyat Al Ulya, Saudi Arabia
  • Meshari S. Alqahtani College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
  • Jamal A. Almarshadi Department of Emergency Medicine, King Khalid Hospital, Hail, Saudi Arabia
  • Thamer A. Alanazi Department of General Surgery, King Khalid Hospital, Hail, Saudi Arabia
  • Fahad H. Alshammari Department of Emergency Medicine, King Khalid Hospital, Hail, Saudi Arabia
  • Marwan T. Almalki College of Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland – Medical University of Bahrain, Muharraq, Bahrain
  • Dalal A. Mohamed Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Salmaniya Medical Complex, Manama, Bahrain
  • Osama O. Alamoudi Department of General Surgery, King Abdulaziz Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Ayman J. Almalky Department of General Surgery, King Faisal Medical Complex, Taif, Saudi Arabia
  • Ahmed E. Alobaidi Department of General Surgery, Almadinah General Hospital, Medina, Saudi Arabia



Readmission, Risk Factor, Surgery, Emergency, Hospital


Emergency surgery requires complex and diversified skills and talents to execute procedures from several fields of surgery within 24 hours. The prevalence of emergency surgery is also increasing in recent times and the cohort for emergency general surgery is particularly at risk for readmission. Readmission is considered as one of the predictors of the quality of healthcare. Readmission following emergency surgery is frequent and varies greatly based on patient characteristics and diagnostic types. Readmission is associated with the significant morbidity and mortality, also adds to the increased hospital burden. Various risk factors account for the readmission. The purpose of this research is to review the available information about the readmission rates and risk factors associated with emergency surgeries. About half of patients undergoing emergency surgeries will experience a postoperative complication, and postoperative complications have a strong correlation with hospital readmission. Postoperative complications and readmission have a significant negative influence on patient quality of life and healthcare resources. Different studies have reported an increased prevalence of readmissions after emergency surgeries. Surgical site infection, increased length of hospital stays, readmission at the non-index hospital, comorbidities are some of the commonly reported risk factors of readmission. Establishment and implementation of the preventive strategies for the control of risk factors of readmission can help in reducing the readmission burden.


Shah AA, Haider AH, Zogg CK, Schwartz DA, Haut ER, Zafar SN, Schneider EB, Velopulos CG, Shafi S, Zafar H, Efron DT. National estimates of predictors of outcomes for emergency general surgery. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015;78(3):482-90.

Surlin V. Emergency and Trauma Surgery. Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania: 1990). 2021;116(6):643-4.

Hutchings A, Moler Zapata S, O'Neill S, Smart N, Cromwell D, Hinchliffe R, et al. Variation in the rates of emergency surgery amongst emergency admissions to hospital for common acute conditions. BJS Open. 2021;5(6).

Havens JM, Olufajo OA, Cooper ZR, Haider AH, Shah AA, Salim A. Defining Rates and Risk Factors for Readmissions Following Emergency General Surgery. JAMA Surg. 2016;151(4):330-6.

McCrum ML, Cannon AR, Allen CM, Presson AP, Huang LC, Brooke BS. Contributors to Increased Mortality Associated With Care Fragmentation After Emergency General Surgery. JAMA Surg. 2020;155(9):841-8.

Kassin MT, Owen RM, Perez SD, Leeds I, Cox JC, Schnier K, Sadiraj V, Sweeney JF. Risk factors for 30-day hospital readmission among general surgery patients. J Am Coll Surg. 2012;215(3):322-30.

Gillies MA, Ghaffar S, Harrison E, Haddow C, Smyth L, Walsh TS, Pearse RM, Lone NI. The association between ICU admission and emergency hospital readmission following emergency general surgery. J Intensive Care Soc. 2019;20(4):316-6.

Wu V, Hall SF. Rates and causes of 30-day readmission and emergency room utilization following head and neck surgery. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2018;47(1):36.

Rossi IR, Ross SW, May AK, Reinke CE. Readmission After Emergency General Surgery: NSQIP Review of Risk, Cause and Ideal Follow-Up. J Surg Res. 2021;260:359-68.

Urrechaga EM, Cioci AC, Parreco JP, Gilna GP, Saberi RA, Yeh DD, et al. The hidden burden of unplanned readmission after emergency general surgery. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2021;91(5):891-7.

Kelley KM, Collins J, Britt LD, Taylor DDH, Britt R. Readmission after emergency general surgery. Am J Surg. 2020;220(3):731-5.

Muthuvel G, Tevis S, Liepert A, Agarwal S, Kennedy G. A composite index for predicting readmission following emergency general surgery. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014;76:1467-72.

Jacobs B, Hadjittofi C, Taylor F, Davies J, Machesney M. Rethinking surgical readmissions. Bull Royal Coll Surgeons Engl. 2018;100:104-8.

Glans M, Kragh Ekstam A, Jakobsson U, Bondesson Å, Midlöv P. Risk factors for hospital readmission in older adults within 30 days of discharge – a comparative retrospective study. BMC Geriatrics. 2020;20(1):467.

Zhou H, Della PR, Porter P, Roberts PA. Risk factors associated with 30-day all-cause unplanned hospital readmissions at a tertiary children's hospital in Western Australia. J Paediatrics Child Health. 2020;56(1):68-75.

Spatz ES, Bernheim SM, Horwitz LI, Herrin J. Community factors and hospital wide readmission rates: Does context matter? PloS One. 2020;15(10):e0240222.

Sultan R, Abdullah UH, Chawla T. 30-Day Readmission Rate and its Causes in General Surgical Patients. J Coll Physicians Surgeons-Pakistan. 2018;28(4):314-6.

Cannon AR, Kingsbury MR, Allen CM, Presson AP, Huang LC, McCrum ML. Excess Mortality after Emergency General Surgery Readmission at Non-Index Hospitals: Patient and System Contributors. J Am Coll Surgeons. 2019;229(4).




How to Cite

Siddiqui, M. S., Albawardi, A. A., Alqahtani, M. S., Almarshadi, J. A., Alanazi, T. A., Alshammari, F. H., Almalki, M. T., Mohamed, D. A., Alamoudi, O. O., Almalky, A. J., & Alobaidi, A. E. (2022). Readmission rates and risk factors associated with emergency surgeries. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 9(10), 3889–3892.



Review Articles