Prevalence of tobacco use and awareness about its ill-effects amongst adult rural population of district Rewari
Keywords:Tobacco, Awareness, Consumption, Rural population
Background: To determine the extent of tobacco use and knowledge of its harmful consequences among the rural population of District Rewari, Haryana.
Methods:A cross-sectional study was done in the month of November 2021. A total 600 participants were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire for data collection.
Results: 23.3% of population consuming tobacco, with male population has highest tobacco consumption (84.97%). Tobacco consumption is in form of Bidi and Hookah (85.1%). People who tried quitting tobacco restarted due to withdrawal symptoms (64.3%), peer pressure (24.2%), and 11.5% due to other factors like stress, gastric problems. 29.5% females and 25.3% males find tobacco as the main cause of oral cancer. 94% of people consuming tobacco were aware about its ill-effects. 14.37% recognized swelling and ulcers, 3.27% red and white lesion, 1.64% hoarseness of voice as main symptoms of oral cancer, while, 76.8% didn’t recognize any. 84.8% were never educated about causes, and early signs and symptoms of oral cancer by any healthcare professional, But the majority knows the ill effects of tobacco through advertisements and social media.
Conclusions: Although tobacco consumption has decreased so far even in the villages, people are still unaware of the risks associated with smoking, and those who wish to stop can’t, due to lack of any professional help. New programs should be implemented like organizing awareness camps. Strictly banning the advertisements and marketing of tobacco products is the most necessary step in eliminating it from our society completely.
Gaur M. Tobacco use in India: an epidemic of smoking, chewing and snuffing. J Environ Sci Toxicol Food Technol. 2017;11:11-3.
The International tobacco control policy evaluation project TCP India Project Report Findings From the Wave 1 Survey 2010-2011. Available at: https://www.healis.org/pdf/special-report/TCP-IndiaNR-ENG-Sept17_2015_v17-web.pdf. Accessed on 20 October 2021.
Wallace RB, Kohatsu N. Wallace/Maxcy-Rosenau-Last public health & preventive medicine. 15th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2008:6.
Ebbert JO, Patten CA, Schroeder DR. The Fagerström test for nicotine dependence smokeless tobacco. Addict Behav. 2006;31:1716-21.
Tiwari RK, Sharma V, Pandey RK, Shukla SS. Nicotine Addiction: Neurobiology and Mechanism. J Pharmacopuncture. 2020;23:1-7.
World Tobacco and its environmental impact: an overview, 2017. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/255574. Accessed on 20 October 2021.
Jayakrishnan R, Geetha S, Mohanan Nair JK, Thomas G, Sebastian P. Tobacco and alcohol use and the impact of school based antitobacco education for knowledge enhancement among adolescent students of rural Kerala, India. J Addict. 2016;2016:1-8.
Kaur J, Jain DC. Tobacco control policies in India: implementation and challenges. Indian J Public Health. 2011;55:220-7.
Aggarwal A, Abdullah M, Gupta J, Khan MH, Aggarwal N. Oral cancer awareness among the general public in Aligarh of Uttar Pradesh of India. Ann Dent Spec. 2020;8:13-19.
Rural urban distribution of population India. Available at: https://censusindia.gov.in/nada/ index.php/catalog/ 42617. Accessed on 20 October 2021.
Committee on the public health implications of raising the minimum age for purchasing tobacco products; board on population health and public health practice. In: Bonnie RJ, Stratton K, Kwan LY, eds. Washington DC: National Academies Press; 2015.
International institute of population sciences Mumbai. National family health survey 2015-16. Available at: http://rchiips.org/nfhs/pdf/NFHS4/ TN_FactSheet.pdf. Accessed on 20 October 2021.
Tbishur R, Ghulam SH. Oral cancer awareness in cancer capital of India: An insight. Int J Curr Res. 2018;10:65051-4.
Borse V, Konwar AN, Buragohain P. Oral cancer diagnosis and perspectives in India. Sens Int. 2020;1:100046.
Zachar JJ, Huang B, Yates E. Awareness and knowledge of oral cancer amongst adult dental patients attending regional university clinics in New South Wales, Australia: a questionnaire-based study. Int Dent J. 2020;70:93-9.
Sung H, Ferlay J, Siegel RL, Laversanne M, Soerjomataram I, Jemal A, et al. Global cancer statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin. 2021;71:209-49.
John RM, Sinha P, Munish VG, Tullu FT. Economic costs of diseases and deaths attributable to tobacco use in India, 2017-2018. Nicotine Tob Res. 2021;23:294-301.
Singh AG, Chaukar D, Gupta S, Pramesh CS, Sullivan R, Chaturvedi P, et al. A prospective study to determine the cost of illness for oral cancer in India. Cancer Med Sci. 2021;15:1252.
Lakra S, Kaur G, Mehta A, Kaushal V, Atri R, Sunder. Knowledge and awareness of oral cancer patients regarding its etiology, prevention, and treatment. Indian J Dent Res. 2020;31:625-8.
Agrawal M, Jain S, Maitin N, Gupta T, Maitin S. Prevalence and predictors of tobacco use among general public of Gorakhpur district, India. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res. 2015;5:16-20.
Sinha DN, Gupta PC, Pednekar M. Tobacco use among students in Bihar (India). Indian J Public Health. 2004;48:111-7.
D-Cruz AM, Shetty P, Shetty UA. Knowledge regarding oral cancer among the rural population in India. J Evol Med Dent Sci. 2018;7:3293-5.
Vishma BK, Shashikantha SK, Sheethal MP, Muniyal AS. Awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors in a rural community in Mandya, Karnataka, India. Int J Commu Med Public Health. 2016;3:347-52.
Shanly PJ, Archana M, Anuradha S, Meera P, Kadar N, Arun M. Awareness and knowledge about oral cancer among dental patients in a rural area of kerala: a cross sectional study. Int J Curr Adv Res. 2019; 8:18061-3.