Current tobacco use among adults: a community-based study in urban area of Thanlyin township, Yangon region, Myanmar

Win M. Oo, May S. Aung, Kay T. Lwin, Thae’ Z. C. Bo, Kyaw S. Mya


Background: The identification, prevention and control of the common risk factors are the basic element in prevention and control of NCDs. However, the paucity of information on risk factors is one of the major challenges in the prevention and control of these diseases. The use of tobacco is one of the main risk factors of major NCDs. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence, and socioeconomic and demographic determinants of current tobacco use among adults residing in urban area of Thanlyin Township, Yangon Region.

Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted among 468 adults. Multi-stage random sampling was applied. Data entry and analysis was done using Stata 11.0 statistical package.

Results: The prevalence of current smoking, current use of smokeless tobacco and current tobacco use were 27.6%, 35.7% and 48.1%, respectively. Age, sex, marital status and occupation were significantly associated with both current smoking and current use of smokeless tobacco. There was a significant decreasing trend of current smokeless tobacco use across the levels of education. Besides, age, sex, education and occupation were detected as significant determinants of current tobacco use.

Conclusions:There is an urgent need to curb the use of tobacco in urban area, especially among males and young adults. Tobacco control policy in Myanmar should be strengthened or reinforced to reduce tobacco consumption in the country. Education status of the population should also be improved.


Adults, Tobacco use, Urban, Yangon

Full Text:



World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia. Noncommunicable disease risk factor survey, Myanmar, 2009. New Delhi: WHO; 2011:17-31.

World Health Organization. Risk factors, 2015. Available at: Accessed 2 July 2015.

Samb B, Desai N, Nishtar S, Mendis S, Bekedam H, Wright A, Hsu J, Martiniuk A, Celletti F, Patel K, Adshead F, McKee M, Evans T, Alwan A, Etienne C. Prevention and management of chronic disease: a litmus test for health-systems strengthening in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet. 2010;376(9754):1785-97.

World Health Organization. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2008: The MPOWER package. Geneva: WHO.

American Lung Association. Health effects. Available at: Accessed 22 August 2015.

Oo WM, Khaing W, Mya KS, Moh MM. Health literacy - is it useful in prevention of behavioural risk factors of NCDs? Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9):2331-6.

National Cancer Institute. Smokeless tobacco use in South-East Asia region. Available at: Accessed 21 August 2015.

Rani M, Bonu S, Jha P, Nguyen SN, Jamjoum L. Tobacco use in India: prevalence and predictors of smoking and chewing in a national cross sectional household survey. Tobacco Control 2003; 12:e4. DOI: 10.1136/tc.12.4.e4. Accessed 23 August 2015.

Sinha DN, Palipudi KM, Rolle I, Asma S, Rinchen S. Tobacco use among youth and adults in member countries of South-East Asia region: review of findings from surveys under the Global Tobacco Surveillance System. Indian J Public Health 2011; 55(3):169-76.

American Lung Association. Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. Available at: Print=t. Accessed 22 August 2015.

von Wagner C, Knight K, Steptoe A, Wardle J. Functional health literacy and health-promoting behaviour in a national sample of British adults. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2007;61:1086-90.

Sreeramarreddy CT, Pradhan PMS, Mir IA, Sin S. Smoking and smokeless tobacco use in nine South and Southeast Asian countries: prevalence estimates and social determinants from Demographic and Health Surveys. Population Health Metrics 2014; 12:22.

Tobacco in Australia. International comparisons of prevalence of smoking. Available at: 21 August 2015.

Aranha A, Patel P, Panaich S, Cardozo L. Health literacy and cardiovascular disease risk factors among the elderly: a study from a patient-centered medical home. Am J Manag Care. 2015;21(2):140-5.

Singh A, Ladusingh L. Prevalence and determinants of tobacco use in India: Evidence from recent global adult tobacco survey data. PLoS ONE; 9(12): e114073. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114073. Accessed 23 August 2015.

Sinha DN, Gupta PC, Ray CS, Singh PK. Prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among adults in WHO South-East Asia. Indian J Cancer 2012; 49:342-6.