Classification, pathophysiology and principle of therapy of shock


  • Ahmed Ragab Zein Department of Intensive Care Unit, King Fahad General Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Majed Hayf Alqahtani College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Ali Anwar Alnajar Department of Emergency Medicine, Jubail General Hospital, Jubail, Saudi Arabia
  • Abdulhadi Ali Alali Emergency Medical Services, Al-Jafer General Hospital, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
  • Mubarak Mohammed Alasmari College of Medicine, Almaarefa University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Khaled Naif Alduaig Home Health Care Department, Abqaiq General Hospital, Abqaiq, Saudi Arabia
  • Sarah Abdulrahman Alruzaihan Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahad Hospital, Hofuf, Saudi Arabia
  • Hnan Khalil Al-Rajeh Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahad Hospital, Hofuf, Saudi Arabia
  • Kamal Jamal Alamrousi College of Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland
  • Aisha Ibrahim AL-khallufah Department of Respiratory Therapy, Abu Arish General Hospital, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
  • Mohammed Alfateh Albadawi Department of Emergency Medicine, Buraidah Central Hospital, Buraidah, Saudi Arabia



Shock, Class, Therapy, Mortality


Shock is a clinical syndrome that results from lack of oxygen utilization or supply to vital organs resulting in hypoxia. Shock is associated with significant morbidity and mortality as if not treated timely can lead to multiple organ failure and death. The mortality rate of shock ranges from 20% to 50%. Shock has several pathophysiologies including intracardiac etiologies such as myocardial infarction, myopathy, or severe arrhythmia which produce altered maturation and cause heart failure while loss of internal or external fluid due to trauma or bleeding often results in hypovolemia. Also, obstruction by extracardiac causes and activation of inflammatory cascade can induce shock. The purpose of this research is to review the available information about the classification, pathophysiology and principle of therapy of shock. The major classification of shock includes cardiogenic, hypovolemic, obstructive and distributive shock. Distributive shock is further divided into three subclasses of septic, anaphylactic and neurogenic shock. Haemorrhagic shock is also the sub-type of hypovolemic shock. Each class of shock requires a specific treatment and timely management to prevent any further complications. Constant examination, resuscitation and re-evaluation are important in therapy of shock. To treat hypotension and to increase cardiac output, vasopressor drugs and inotropic adrenergic drugs continue to be the most widely used therapies. Endogenous catecholamines such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine among other vasopressors have been shown to be effective in treating various types of shocks that are controlled as part of treatment for shock. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can help in prevention of complications of shock also enhancing the recovery of patients.


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How to Cite

Zein, A. R., Alqahtani, M. H., Alnajar, A. A., Alali, A. A., Alasmari, M. M., Alduaig, K. N., Alruzaihan, S. A., Al-Rajeh, H. K., Alamrousi, K. J., AL-khallufah, A. I., & Albadawi, M. A. (2022). Classification, pathophysiology and principle of therapy of shock. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 9(9), 3613–3617.



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