Prevalence, risk factors and antibiogram of bacteria isolated from skin of human having close contact with dairy cows in small-holder farms in Gatundu Sub-County, Kenya


  • Felix O. Otenga Department of Biochemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
  • John M. Kagira Department of Animal Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
  • Kenneth Waititu Department of Animal Science, Institute of Primate Research, Nairobi, Kenya
  • Daniel M. Kiboi Department of Biochemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
  • Maina Ngotho Department of Clinical Studies, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
  • Naomi Maina Department of Biochemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya



Prevalence, Human, Risk-factors, Antibiotics, Antimicrobial resistance, Staphylococci spp., Enterobacteriaceae


Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a global health crisis which needs surveillance especially in people having close contact with animals.

Methods: A total of 120 skin swabs from around the neck region were obtained from human respondents and subjected to bacteriological analyses. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done using Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method and results were interpreted according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines.

Results: The results showed that the skin was colonized by Staphylococcus aureus (49.4%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (16.9%), Pantoea spp. (13%), Serratia spp. (13%), Bukholderia cepacian (3%), Enterobacter spp. (3%), Yersinia enterocolitica (1.3%) and Pasteurella aerogenes (1.3%). The CoNS were mostly resistant to gentamycin (100%), clindamycin (84.6%), erythromycin (84.6%) and ciprofloxacin 84.6% and sensitive to sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (76.9%). For S. aureus, most isolates were resistant to gentamycin (86.8%), oxacillin (86.8%) and vancomycin (73.7%) but susceptible to amoxycillin-clavulanic acid (89.5%) amongst other antibiotics. The multiple antibiotic resistance index for S. aureus and CoNS was 0.92 and 0.92, respectively. Respondents aged more than 40 years had higher burden of AMR compared to the other respondents (p = 0.011, OD=1.745). Similarly, the AMR burden was higher in respondents who had previous history of using medication compared to those who had not (p=0.025, OD=0.204).

Conclusions: The study showed a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance in CoNS and S. aureus isolates from skin of people having regular contacts with dairy cows in the study area. Interventions strategies to stem the emergence of AMR should be undertaken.

Author Biography

Felix O. Otenga, Department of Biochemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya

Senior Lecturer,

Department of Animal Sciences


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How to Cite

Otenga, F. O., Kagira, J. M., Waititu, K., Kiboi, D. M., Ngotho, M., & Maina, N. (2022). Prevalence, risk factors and antibiogram of bacteria isolated from skin of human having close contact with dairy cows in small-holder farms in Gatundu Sub-County, Kenya. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 9(11), 4039–4045.



Original Research Articles