DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222897
Published: 2022-10-29

Prevalence, risk factors and antibiogram of bacteria isolated from skin of human having close contact with dairy cows in small-holder farms in Gatundu Sub-County, Kenya

Felix O. Otenga, John M. Kagira, Kenneth Waititu, Daniel M. Kiboi, Maina Ngotho, Naomi Maina

Abstract


Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a global health crisis which needs surveillance especially in people having close contact with animals.

Methods: A total of 120 skin swabs from around the neck region were obtained from human respondents and subjected to bacteriological analyses. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done using Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method and results were interpreted according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines.

Results: The results showed that the skin was colonized by Staphylococcus aureus (49.4%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (16.9%), Pantoea spp. (13%), Serratia spp. (13%), Bukholderia cepacian (3%), Enterobacter spp. (3%), Yersinia enterocolitica (1.3%) and Pasteurella aerogenes (1.3%). The CoNS were mostly resistant to gentamycin (100%), clindamycin (84.6%), erythromycin (84.6%) and ciprofloxacin 84.6% and sensitive to sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (76.9%). For S. aureus, most isolates were resistant to gentamycin (86.8%), oxacillin (86.8%) and vancomycin (73.7%) but susceptible to amoxycillin-clavulanic acid (89.5%) amongst other antibiotics. The multiple antibiotic resistance index for S. aureus and CoNS was 0.92 and 0.92, respectively. Respondents aged more than 40 years had higher burden of AMR compared to the other respondents (p = 0.011, OD=1.745). Similarly, the AMR burden was higher in respondents who had previous history of using medication compared to those who had not (p=0.025, OD=0.204).

Conclusions: The study showed a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance in CoNS and S. aureus isolates from skin of people having regular contacts with dairy cows in the study area. Interventions strategies to stem the emergence of AMR should be undertaken.


Keywords


Prevalence, Human, Risk-factors, Antibiotics, Antimicrobial resistance, Staphylococci spp., Enterobacteriaceae

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