Prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors among adults in urban field practice area NMC, Raichur, Karnataka, India
Keywords:Hypertension, Risk factors, Stress, Smoking
Background: Hypertension is the commonest cardiovascular disorder, posting a major public health problem of the world and especially to population in socio-economic and epidemiological transition. It is one of the major and independent risk factors for non-communicable diseases like cerebrovascular disease, coronary heart diseases, and cardiac and renal failure. The recent WHO report states that considering the prevalence of any diseases, hypertension ranks fourth in the world. As it is hidden beneath an outwardly asymptomatic appearance, the disease does immense harm to the body in the form of ‘Target organ’ damage hence the WHO is named it the “silent killer”. The objectives were to estimate prevalence of hypertension among adults in urban population and to estimate the risk factors associated.
Methods: A cross sectional, community based study over a period of one year from January 2013 - December 2013, in Urban field Practice area of Navodaya Medical College. Diagnostic criteria (based on JNC VII guidelines) includes SBP ≥140mmHg and/or DBP ≥90mmHg and persons already on anti-hypertensive treatment. Study Population includes people aged 18-65 years residing in the urban field practice area of NMC. Systematic random sampling method is used. Statistical Analysis was done by Chi Square Test by using SPSS version 17.
Results: The hypertension prevalence was 33.6%. The prevalence increased with age. Males have shown higher prevalence of HTN (49.4%) compared to females (23%). Family history of hypertension was present in 36.9% of hypertensives. Majority were taking >6 grams salt per day. Prevalence of hypertension was more in past smokers (82.4%) followed by current smokers (51.5%) when compared to non-smokers (27.6%). 45.4% of hypertensives had stress.Conclusions: Prevalence of hypertension among adults in urban field practice area is 33.6%.There is significant association of hypertension with age, smoking tobacco, high salt intake, stress.