Steps toward behavioural weight loss and maintenance: a daily practice
Keywords:Weight loss, Maintenance, Obesity, Overweight
Obesity is an increased fat accumulation to the levels that affect health and wellbeing. Body mass index (BMI) categorizes people as normal, overweight or obese depending on arithmetic equations. Obesity is a global epidemiological problem, affecting more than 30% of the world population. The main hazard is that the obesity prevalence still escalating. Human behavior plays a major role in the causes of obesity. In addition, other factors are also contributing to bodyweight increase such as, genetic, endocrine and metabolic factors. Nevertheless, obesity can be controlled and ideal weight can be achieved. Some measures and practices were suggested in this mini-review through which a one-day human life cycle was set up as a model that can be followed to ensure proper weight and maintain it thereafter. These measures include regular sleep/wake-up pattern, strict timing of meals, practicing exercise, drinking at least 2.5 liters of water and early going to bed. However, the fundamental mechanisms of weight loss and increase were not addressed in this mini-review.
Fan H, Zhang X. Recent trends in overweight and obesity in adolescents aged 12 to 15 years across 21 countries. Pediatric Obesity. 2022;17(1).
Wang SS, Brownell KD, Wadden TA. The influence of the stigma of obesity on overweight individuals. Int J Obesit. 2004;28(10):1333.
Antonopoulos AS, Oikonomou EK, Antoniades C, Tousoulis D. From the BMI paradox to the obesity paradox: the obesity-mortality association in coronary heart disease. Obes Rev. 2016;17(10):989-1000.
Formiguera X, Cantón A. Obesity: epidemiology and clinical aspects. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2004;18(6):1125-46.
Caterson ID, Gill TP. Obesity: epidemiology and possible prevention. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metabol. 2002;16(4):595-610.
Phelan SM, Burgess DJ, Burke SE, Przedworski JM, Dovidio JF, Hardeman R, et al. Beliefs about the causes of obesity in a national sample of 4소-year medical students. Patient Edu Counsel. 2015;98(11):1446-9.
Kanagasabai T, Dhanoa R, Kuk JL, Ardern CI. Association between sleep habits and metabolically healthy obesity in adults: a cross-sectional study. J Obesity. 2017;2017:5272984.
Sierra-Johnson J, Unden AL, Linestrand M, Rosell M, Sjogren P, Kolak M, et al. Eating meals irregularly: a novel environmental risk factor for the metabolic syndrome. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md). 2008;16(6):1302-7.
Sekine M, Yamagami T, Handa K, Saito T, Nanri S, Kawaminami K, et al. A dose–response relationship between short sleeping hours and childhood obesity: results of the Toyama Birth COHORT Study. Child Care Health Develop. 2002;28(2):163-70.
Timlin MT, Pereira MA, Story M, Neumark-Sztainer D. Breakfast eating and weight change in a 5-year prospective analysis of adolescents: Project EAT (eating among teens). Pediatrics. 2008;121(3):638-45.
Wyatt HR, Grunwald GK, Mosca CL, Klem ML, Wing RR, Hill JO. Long‐term weight loss and breakfast in subjects in the National weight control registry. Obesity. 2002;10(2):78-82.
Wal JSV, Gupta A, Khosla P, Dhurandhar NV. Egg breakfast enhances weight loss. Int J Obesity. 2008;32:1545.
Holt SH, Miller JC, Petocz P, Farmakalidis E. A satiety index of common foods. Eur J Clin Nutrit. 1995;49(9):675-90.
Hwang H, Lee J. A study of teachers' breakfast and ideal breakfast types. Korean J Commun Nutrit. 1999;4(4):575-86.
Berg MC, Jonsson I, Conner MT, Lissner L. Relation between breakfast food choices and knowledge of dietary fat and fiber among Swedish schoolchildren. J Adolesc Health. 2002;31(2):199-207.
Garaulet M, Gómez-Abellán P, Alburquerque-Béjar JJ, Lee YC, Ordovás JM, Scheer FA. Timing of food intake predicts weight loss effectiveness. Int J Obesity. 2013;37(4):604.
Sweitzer SJ, Briley ME, Roberts-Gray C, Hoelscher DM, Harrist RB, Staskel DM, et al. Lunch is in the bag: increasing fruits, vegetables and whole grains in sack lunches of preschool-age children. J Am Dietet Assoc. 2010;110(7):1058-64.
Piernas C, Popkin BM. Snacking increased among U.S. adults between 1977 and 2006. J Nutrit. 2010;140(2):325-32.
Bo S, DeCarli L, Venco E, Fanzola I, Maiandi M, DeMichieli F, et al. Impact of snacking pattern on overweight and obesity risk in a COHORT of 11- to 13-year-old adolescents. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutrit. 2014;59(4):465-71.
Njike VY, Smith TM, Shuval O, Shuval K, Edshteyn I, Kalantari V, et al. Snack food, satiety, and weight. Adv Nutrit. 2016;7(5):866-78.
Sofer S, Eliraz A, Kaplan S, Voet H, Fink G, Kima T, et al. Greater weight loss and hormonal changes after 6 months diet with carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner. Obesity. 2011;19(10):2006-14.
Jakubowicz D, Barnea M, Wainstein J, Froy O. High caloric intake at breakfast vs. dinner differentially influences weight loss of overweight and obese women. Obesity. 2013;21(12):2504-12.
Gleick PH. Basic water requirements for human activities: Meeting basic needs. Water Int. 1996;21(2):83-92.
Thornton SN. Increased hydration can be associated with weight loss. Front Nutr. 2016;3:18.
Stiegler P, Cunliffe A. The role of diet and exercise for the maintenance of fat-free mass and resting metabolic rate during weight loss. Sports Med. 2006;36(3):239-62.
Willis EA, Creasy SA, Honas JJ, Melanson EL, Donnelly JE. The effects of exercise session timing on weight loss and components of energy balance: midwest exercise trial 2. Int J Obesity. 2020;44(1):114-24.
Ballor DL, Poehlman ET. Exercise-training enhances fat-free mass preservation during diet-induced weight loss: a meta-analytical finding. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1994;18(1):35-40.
Sigal RJ, Kenny GP, Boulé NG, Wells GA, Prud'homme D, Fortier M, et al. Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147(6):357-69.
Fleck SJ, Kraemer W. Designing resistance training programs, 4E: Human Kinetics; 2014.
Hunter GR, Brock DW, Byrne NM, Chandler‐Laney PC, Corral P, Gower BA. Exercise training prevents regain of visceral fat for 1 year following weight loss. Obesity. 2010;18(4):690-5.
Reppert SM, Weaver DR. Coordination of circadian timing in mammals. Nature. 2002;418(6901):935-41.
Lavery DJ, Lopez-Molina L, Margueron R, Fleury-Olela F, Conquet F, Schibler U, et al. Circadian expression of the steroid 15 α-hydroxylase (Cyp2a4) and coumarin 7-hydroxylase (Cyp2a5) genes in mouse liver is regulated by the PAR leucine zipper transcription factor DBP. Molecul Cell Biol. 1999;19(10):6488-99.
Plihal W, Born J. Effects of early and late nocturnal sleep on priming and spatial memory. Psychophysiology. 1999;36(5):571-82.
Eliasson AH, Lettieri CJ, Eliasson AH. Early to bed, early to rise! Sleep habits and academic performance in college students. Sleep Breathing. 2010;14(1):71-5.
Ellacott KLJ, Morton GJ, Woods SC, Tso P, Schwartz MW. Assessment of feeding behavior in laboratory mice. Cell Metab. 2010;12(1):10-7.
Gerretsen P, Kim J, Shah P, Quilty L, Balakumar T, Caravaggio F, et al. OASIS: the obesity awareness and insight scale. Obesity Med. 2018;9:38-44.
Swain DP, Franklin BA. Comparison of cardioprotective benefits of vigorous versus moderate intensity aerobic exercise. Am J Cardiol. 2006;97(1):141-7.
Turner-McGrievy GM, Beets MW, Moore JB, Kaczynski AT, Barr-Anderson DJ, Tate DF. Comparison of traditional versus mobile app self-monitoring of physical activity and dietary intake among overweight adults participating in an mHealth weight loss program. J Am Med Informat Assoc. 2013;20(3):513-8.
Findley K. Perceived effectiveness of fitness trackers among adults. Curr Issue Health. 2015.
Jiang P, Turek FW. Timing of meals: when is as critical as what and how much. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metabol. 2017;312(5):369-80.
Coulthard JD, Pot GK. The timing of the evening meal: how is this associated with weight status in UK children? Br J Nutrit. 2016;115(9):1616-22.
Mattson MP, Allison DB, Fontana L, Harvie M, Longo VD, Malaisse WJ, et al. Meal frequency and timing in health and disease. Proceed Natnl Acad Sci United States Am. 2014;111(47):16647-53.