A cross-sectional study on geriatric depression and its associated risk factors in an urban area of Hyderabad, India
Keywords:Depression, Geriatric depression scale, Mental health, Geriatric population
Background: The geriatric population is increasing with advancements in the health sector all over the world. At the same time, old age tackles physical, mental and social challenges. Mental health of the elderly is least concerned in developing countries, especially depression, which is easy to screen and our study aims to know its burden and associated risk factors.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2021 and November 2021 among the geriatric population of Mansoorabad, an urban area in Hyderabad, using the short form of geriatric depression scale (GDS) to assess their depression status. Study subjects who met our criteria were selected through simple random sampling. Data collected were entered and analyzed with MS excel software 2007 and Epi info 3.5.3.
Results: In our study sample of 161, males were 61 (37.9%), females-100(62.1%). Most of the study subjects were in the age group 60-70 years (137, 85.1%), followed by the 70-80 years age group (24, 14.9%). Nearly 59.6% of subjects had no depression, 19.9% suffered from mild depression, 8.1%-moderately depressed, whereas 12.4%-severely depressed. The mean age of subjects was 65.6 (±5.9) years. Chi-square test was used to study the association of various factors with geriatric depression and age group, and socio-economic status showed a statistically significant association.
Conclusions: This study points towards the sensitization of healthcare workers and other subsidiary health personnel at the grassroots level to detect geriatric depression in nascent stages. Many longitudinal follow-up studies are needed to address various aspects of depression.
Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation. Global Health Data Exchange (GHDx). http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool?params=gbd-api-2019-permalink/d780dffbe8a381b25e1416884959e88b. Accessed on 1 May 2021.
Jee S. Psychometric properties of the hindi version of geriatric depression scale (HGDS) J App Sci. 2016;2:28-39.
Thilak SA, Sarada AK, Neloopant SA. Prevalence and factors associated with depression among the elderly in rural areas of Kannur, North Kerala, India-a cross sectional study. Int J Community Med Public Health 2016;3:1986-91.
Pilania M, Yadav V, Bairwa M. Prevalence of depression among the elderly (60 years and above) population in India, 1997-2016: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health. 2019;19:832.
Sheikh JI, Yesavage JA. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS): Recent evidence and development of a shorter version Clinical Gerontology: A Guide toAssessment and Intervention 165-173. NY: The Haworth Press; 1986. Internet. Available at: https://webstanfordedu/~yesavage/GDShtml. Accessed on 1 May 2021.
Khairnar MR, Kumar PG, Kusumakar A. Updated BG prasad socioeconomic status classification for the year 2021. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent. 2021;19:154-5.
Konda PR, Sharma PK, Gandhi AR, Ganguly E. Geriatric Depression and its Correlates among South Indian Urbans. J Depress Anxiety. 2018;7(4):314.
Goyal A, Kajal K. Prevalence of depression in elderly population in the southern part of Punjab. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2014;3(4):359-61.
Sahni B, Bala K, Kumar T, Narangyal A. Prevalence and determinants of geriatric depression in North India: A cross-sectional study. J Family Med Prim Care. 2020;9(5):2332-6.
Ahmed M, Walvekar P, Chate S, Mallapur M. Utility of Geriatric depression Scale-15 for assessment of depression among elderly: a cross sectional study. Indian J Public Heal Res Dev. 2016;7(4):150-4.
Barua A, Ghosh MK, Kar N, Basilio MA. Socio-demographic Factors of Geriatric Depression. Indian J Psychol Med. 2010;32(2):87-92.
Rathod MS, Dixit JV, Goel AD, Yadav V. Prevalence of depression in an urban geriatric population in Marathwada region of Western India. Indian J Psychol Med. 2019;41(1):32-7.
Goswami S, Deshmukh PR, Pawar R, Raut AV, Bhagat M, Mehendale AM. Urban-rural comparison of depression among the elderly population: a cross-sectional study. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2016;5(5):866.
Katyal R, Joshi HS, Agarwal S, Singh H, Tanwar H. Comparative Study of Psychological Morbidities in Geriatric Population of Rural and Urban Dwellers of Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh. Nat J Community Med. 2018;9(12):4.
Saikia DAM, Mahanta DN, Saikia AM, Deka DH, Boruah DB, Mahanta R. Depression in elderly: a community- based study from Assam. Indian J Basic App Med Res. 2016;5(4):42-8.
Arumugam B, Nagalingam S, Nivetha R. Geriatric depression among rural and urban slum community in Chennai- a cross sectional study. J Evol Med Dent Sci. 2013;2(7):795-800.