DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20213822

Knowledge, attitude and practices pertaining to healthy lifestyle in prevention and control of chronic diseases: a rapid review

Saba Naaz

Abstract


With the emergence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), healthy lifestyle has become critical to not only reduce the burden of NCDs, but also to prevent complications and severity of these diseases. Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) pertaining to healthy lifestyle play an important role in determining the occurrence and progress of NCDs. KAP elements are interrelated and dependent on each other. While awareness campaigns provide necessary information to people on healthy lifestyle, how well this information is utilised is a grey area. The objective of this rapid review is to understand the relationship between KAP elements pertaining to healthy lifestyle among individuals who are at risk of developing NCDs and those who are living with NCDs. For this purpose, a rapid review of articles available on Google scholar and Pubmed was conducted. Articles focusing on KAP elements pertaining to healthy lifestyle from the year 2015-2021 were reviewed. Findings from the reviewed studies suggested that people have knowledge about the harmful effects of unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol. People have a positive attitude towards healthy lifestyle, however, being knowledgeable and having a positive attitude did not translate into practicing healthy lifestyle due to multiple barriers to translate existing knowledge into practice. Since practice scores are poor among people, existing behaviour change strategies must be re-examined. An epistemological analysis of existing human behaviour with identified barriers and facilitators to adopt healthy lifestyle can help in formulating sustainable and effective social and behaviour change interventions.


Keywords


Non-communicable diseases, Healthy-lifestyle, KAP, Behaviour change

Full Text:

PDF

References


WHO. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases, 2021. Available at https://www.who.int/ newsroom/factsheets/detail/noncommunicable-diseases. Accessed on 20 July 2021.

Srinath KM, Basavegowda M, Tharuni NS. Diabetic self care practices in rural Mysuru, Southern Karnataka, India - A need for Diabetes Self Management Educational (DSME) program. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2017;11(1):181-6.

Schunk D, Dibenedetto M. Motivation and Social Cognitive Theory. Contemporary Educational Psychology. 2019 Dec 1; 60:101832. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0361476X19304370.

Heath GW, Liguori G. Physical Activity and Health Promotion. In: Wright JD, editor. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (Second Edition). Oxford: Elsevier; 2015 [cited 2021 Apr 21]. p. 91–9. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080970868141169.

Mathews E, Lakshmi JK, Ravindran TK, Pratt M, Thankappan KR. Perceptions of barriers and facilitators in physical activity participation among women in Thiruvananthapuram City, India. Glob Health Promot. 2016;23(4):27-36.

Arora NK, Pillai R, Dasgupta R, Garg PR. Whole-of-society monitoring framework for sugar, salt, and fat consumption and noncommunicable diseases in India. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2014;1331:157-73.

Kharde AL, Deshpande JD, Phalke DB. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) regarding carbonated drinks among students of medical college of western Maharashtra. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013;2(4):912-5.

Fatema K, Hossain S, Natasha K. Knowledge attitude and practice regarding diabetes mellitus among Nondiabetic and diabetic study participants in Bangladesh. BMC Public Health. 2017;17:364.

Srinivasan NK, John D, Rebekah G, Kujur ES, Paul P, John SS. Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy: Knowledge, Attitude, Practice (KAP) among Diabetic Patients in A Tertiary Eye Care Centre. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017;11(7):1-7.

Pratinidhi SA. A Study of Whole Grain Consumption Pattern along with its Determinants and Health Benefits in Various Students of Western Maharashtra, India. J Pediat Dent. 2020;1:5.

Satija A, Khandpur N, Satija S, Mathur GS, Prabhakaran D, Reddy KS, et al. Physical Activity Among Adolescents in India: A Qualitative Study of Barriers and Enablers. Health Educ Behav. 2018;45(6):926-34.

Pethkar V. Adopting active lifestyle: A study of school children’s physical activity readiness, motives and decisional balance of physical activity. Int J Physiol Nut Phys Edu. 2018;3(1):2163-6.

Agrawal D, Khadilkar A, Chiplonkar S, Khadilkar V. Knowledge of nutrition and physical activity in apparently healthy Indian adults. Public Health Nutr. 2018;21(9):1743-52.

Landge JA, Khadkikar GD. Lifestyle and nutritional status of late adolescent in an urban area of Western Maharashtra: cross sectional study. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2020 Jul 24;7(8):3027.

Khanna S, Dharap A, Gokhale D. Breakfast eating habits and its association with mental wellbeing and mindful attention awareness among university students of Pune district, Maharashtra, India. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2017;3(6):1584-8.

Narayana G, Suchitra MJ, Sunanda G, Ramaiah JD, Kumar BP, Veerabhadrappa KV. Knowledge, attitude, and practice toward cervical cancer among women attending Obstetrics and Gynecology Department: A cross-sectional, hospital-based survey in South India. Indian J Cancer. 2017;54(2):481-7.

Kehoe SH, Dhurde V, Bhaise S, Kale R, Kumaran K, Gelli A, et al. Barriers and Facilitators to Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Rural Indian Women of Reproductive Age. Food Nutr Bull. 2019;40(1):87-98.

Antony LCM, Bhatti RK. Junk Food Consumption and Knowledge about its Ill Effects among Teenagers: A Descriptive Study. Int J Sci Res. 2013;4(6):4.

Anjana RM, Pradeepa R, Das AK. Physical activity and inactivity patterns in India – results from the ICMR-INDIAB study (Phase-1) [ICMR-INDIAB-5]. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2014;11:26.

Patnaik L, Paul KK, Pattnaik S, Sahu T. Lifestyle Pattern and Hypertension Related Knowledge, Attitude and Practices among Diagnosed Patients of Hypertension Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital. JCDR. 2017;8(4):108-11.

Kotian SP, Waingankar P, Mahadik VJ. Assessment of compliance to treatment of hypertension and diabetes among previously diagnosed patients in urban slums of Belapur, Navi Mumbai, India. Indian J Public Health. 2019;63(4):348-52.

Kakumani K, Waingankar P. Assessment of Compliance to Treatment of Diabetes and Hypertension amongst Previously Diagnosed Patients from Rural Community of Raigad District of Maharashtra. J Assoc Physic India. 2016;64:36-40.

Deshmukh S, Kalaskar SK, Kadam SB, Mote B, Paslawar SK, Adhav AS, et al. Utilization pattern of health services for noncommunicable diseases in an urban slum: a study of Turbhe stores slum in Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2017;4:139-45.

Nagarkar AM, Gadhave SA, Sharma I, Choure A, Morisky D. Factors influencing medication adherence among hypertensive patients in a tertiary care hospital, Pune, Maharashtra. Nat J Community Med. 2014;4(4):5.

Kushwaha AS, Kumari S, Kushwaha N. Self-care in diabetes: a study amongst diabetics in an urban community. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2017 Jan 31;3(1):293–8.

Tabassum N, Rao RLL. Factors Associated with Adherence to Antihypertensive Treatment among Hypertensives in Urban Field Practicing Areas of Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad. Int J Health Sci. 2017;(12):9.

Patil C, Dhoble M, Kaware A. A study of physical activity levels and its correlates among adults: a cross-sectional study. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2017;4:1154.

Kazi RN, Bote MM, Raikar KJ. Knowledge, attitude and practices about diabetes mellitus and its complications in T2DM patients attending the UHC in Mumbai. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2017;4(8):2793-7.

Okonta HI, Ikombele JB, Ogunbanjo GA. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding lifestyle modification in type 2 diabetic patients. Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med. 2014;6(1):1-6.

Solanki JD, Sheth NS, Shah CJ, Mehta HB. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of urban Gujarati type 2 diabetics: Prevalence and impact on disease control. J Educ Health Promot. 2017;6:35.

Committee on Examination of the Adequacy of Food Resources and SNAP Allotments, Food and Nutrition Board, Committee on National Statistics, Institute of Medicine, National Research Council. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Examining the Evidence to Define Benefit Adequacy. Caswell JA, Yaktine AL, eds. Washington: National Academies Press; 2013.

Mohandas A, Bhasin SK, Upadhyay M, Madhu SV. Diabetes self-care activities among adults 20 years and above residing in a resettlement colony in East Delhi. Indian J Public Health. 2018;62(2):104-10.

Deepali BS, Mangala S, Soumya G, Vikyath BR, Aarudhra P, Ankitha M, et al. Knowledge of diabetes, its complications and treatment adherence among diabetic patients. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2017;4:2428-34.

Leonard TC, Thaler RH, Sunstein CR. Improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness. Nudge. New Haven: Yale University Press; 2008: 356-60.

Patil H, Vibhute NA, Shah U, Baad R, Belgaumi U, Kadashetti V, et al. Knowledge and risk perception of oral cancer among rickshaw drivers in Karad City, Maharashtra, India. CHRISMED J Health Res 2019;6:207-9.

WHO. GATS 2, 2017. Available at: https://www.who.int/tobacco/surveillance/survey/gats/GATS_India_2016-17_FactSheet.pdf. Accessed on 20 July 2021.

Raute LJ, Sansone G, Pednekar MS, Fong GT, Gupta PC, Quah ACK, et al. Knowledge of health effects and intentions to quit among smokeless tobacco users in India: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) India Pilot Survey. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12(5):1233-8.

Parakh MK, Ulaganambi S, Ashifa N, Premkumar R, Jain AL. Oral potentially malignant disorders: clinical diagnosis and current screening aids: a narrative review. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2020;29(1):65-72.

Shrivastava SR, Bobhate PS. Tobacco Quit Rates among Youth in an Urban Health Centre of Mumbai: A Cross Sectional Study. Addict Health. 2010;2(3):111-7.

Rahul GN. Tribal Tobacco Survey among Young Adolescent of Central Part of India. World J Dent. 2019;10(2):109-13.

Narayan DD, Dhondibarao GR, Ghanshyam KC. Prevalence of Tobacco Consumption among the Adolescents of the Tribal Areas in Maharashtra. undefined. JCDR. 2011;5(5):1060-3.

ICRW. Normalising alcohol consumption among youth in Mumbai, India, 2019. Available at: http://strive.lshtm.ac.uk/system/files/attachments/STRIVE_evidence%20brief%20alcohol%20Mumbai%202019.pdf. Accessed on 20 July 2021.

Singh A, Gupta P, Srivastava M, Zaidi Z. A cross sectional study on tobacco and alcohol abuse among medical college students. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2017;4:3372.

Mackinnon N, Bhatia U, Nadkarni A. The onset and progression of alcohol use disorders: A qualitative study from Goa, India. J Ethn Subst Abuse. 2019;18(1):89-102.

Pradhan MR, Patel SK. Correlates of tobacco quit attempts and missed opportunity for tobacco cessation among the adult population in India. Addict Behav. 2019;95:82-90.