DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20210780

Self-medication with antibiotics among youths from Myanmar

Pyae Sone Win, Thida Win, Pa Pa Soe

Abstract


Background: Self-medication with antibiotics becomes a public health concern in both developed and developing countries. It is a risk factor for antibiotic resistance, one of the biggest threats to global health, food security, and development today. The prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics varies across the countries, and such studies are still limited in Myanmar. Therefore, we aimed at describing the prevalence of and the factors facilitating self-medication with antibiotics in Myanmar.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included face-to-face interviewing of 360 youths randomly selected from 6 townships of Mandalay city, Myanmar.

Results: In this study, 36.67% of the youths self-medicated with antibiotics in the six months before the survey. The most common antibiotic used for self-medication was amoxicillin (70.94%). Runny nose (35.61%), cough (26.52%), and fever (25.76%) were the most typical symptoms for which antibiotics were taken. The main factor facilitating self-medication with antibiotics was easy accessibility (86.36%).  One-third of youths selected antibiotics based on the advice of drugstore’s sellers. Most of the youths bought antibiotics at nearby drugstores. About two-thirds of youths stopped taking antibiotics after taking them one or two days, regardless of the outcome.

Conclusions: The prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics was high among Myanmar youths. Law enforcement and regulations for inappropriate use of antibiotics is an urgent need to alleviate the consequences of self-medication with antibiotics. Awareness-raising and educational program targeting both drugstore owners and the public through various channels is necessary to reduce the inappropriate use of antibiotics.


Keywords


Antibiotics, Myanmar, Self-medication with antibiotics, Youths

Full Text:

PDF

References


Esan DT, Fasoro AA, Odesanya OE, Esan TO, Ojo EF, Faeji CO. Assessment of self-medication practices and its associated factors among undergraduates of a private university in Nigeria. J Environ Public Health. 2018;2018:5439079.

Shafie M, Eyasu M, Muzeyin K, Worku Y, Martín-Aragón S. Prevalence and determinants of self-medication practice among selected households in Addis Ababa community. PLoS One. 2018;13(3).

Nepal G, Bhatta S. Self-medication with antibiotics in WHO Southeast Asian Region: a systematic review. Cureus. 2018;10(4):e2428.

Pan H, Cui B, Zhang D, Farrar J, Law F, Ba-Thein W. Prior knowledge, older age, and higher allowance are risk factors for self-medication with antibiotics among university students in Southern China. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e41314.

Kim SS, Moon S, Kim EJ. public knowledge and attitudes regarding antibiotic use in South Korea. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2011;41(6):742-9.

Seam MOR, Bhatta R, Saha BL, Das A, Hossain MM, Uddin SMN, et al. Assessing the perceptions and practice of self-medication among Bangladeshi undergraduate pharmacy students. Pharmacy. 2018;6(1):6.

Widayati A, Suryawati S, de Crespigny C, Hiller JE. Self-medication with antibiotics in Yogyakarta City Indonesia: a cross sectional population-based survey. BMC Res Notes. 2011;4(1):491.

Wen Y, Lieber E, Wan D, Hong Y. A qualitative study about self-medication in the community among market vendors in Fuzhou, China. Health Soc Care Community. 2011;19(5):504-13.

Rey M, Pessacq P, Berruezo L, Torre V, Baldoni N, Margot A, et al. Antibiotic self-medication: prevalence and behaviour description. Int J Infect Dis. 2018;73:222.

Thet MT, Htein L, Kyaw H. Self-medication practices in a peri-urban area of Yangon City: a qualitative approach. Myanmar Health Sci Res J. 2009;21(3):194-5.

Thuzar M, Aung PL. Prevalence of self-medication and its influence in the labor force in rural Hlaing Tharyar, Yangon, Myanmar. Open Public Health J. 2019 Feb 28;12(1).

Flaiti MA, Badi KA, Hakami WO, Khan SA. Evaluation of self-medication practices in acute diseases among university students in Oman. J Acute Dis. 2014;3(3):249-52.

Ganesan N, Subramanian S, Jaikumar, Rawat H, Kumar S. Self-medication and indiscriminate use of antibiotics without prescription in Chennai, India: a major public health problem. J Club Pharm Sci. 2014;1(1):131-41.

Sirijoti K, Hongsranagon P, Havanond P, Pannoi W. Assessment of knowledge attitudes and practices regarding antibiotic use in Trang province, Thailand. J Health Res. 2014;28(5):299-307.

Lescure D, Paget J, Schellevis F, van Dijk L. Determinants of self-medication with antibiotics in European and Anglo-Saxon Countries: a systematic review of the literature. Front Public Health. 2018;6:370.

Thelwell K. Poverty and antibiotic resistance in Southeast Asia. The Borgen Project, 2019. Available at: https://borgenproject.org/poverty-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-southeast-asia/. Accessed on 24 February 2020.

Tin HH. First National Multisectoral Steering Committee Meeting Combating AMR Myanmar, 2016. Available at: http://www.mohs.gov.mm/ ckfinder/connector?command=Proxy〈=en&type=Main&currentFolder=/Publications/Power+Point_2018/&hash=a6a1c319429b7abc0a8e21dc137ab33930842cf5&fileName=National+Steering+Committee+Meeting+on+AMR.pdf. Accessed on 11 August 2020.

Ateshim Y, Bereket B, Major F, Emun Y, Woldai B, Pasha I, et al. Prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics and associated factors in the community of Asmara, Eritrea: a descriptive cross sectional survey. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):726.

Waaseth M, Adan A, Røen IL, Eriksen K, Stanojevic T, Halvorsen KH, et al. Knowledge of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance among Norwegian pharmacy customers- a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):66.