Epidemiology of respiratory distress in pregnancy and the newborn in Delta state Nigeria

Omatseye A. Akuirene, Samuel D. Nwajei, Josiah O. Adjene, John E. Moyegbone, Ezekiel U. Nwose


Epidemiology can be said to be the branch of medicine that deals with the incidence, distribution, and also possible control of diseases and other factors relating to health. Thus, epidemiology includes controlled clinical evaluations of different treatment methods; comparative assessment of lifestyle factors, such as smoking, drugs, and drinking habits; estimations of the risks of occupational factors; and cross-sectional and time-series analyses of factors that may affect health. To identify epidemiology of respiratory distress in pregnancy and new born. 34 international publications on respiratory distress disease in pregnancy and new born were reviewed for the presentation of this article. Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a frequent newborn morbidity worldwide with reported prevalence of 18.5% in France, 4.24% in Pakistan and 20.5% in China. 20% of all global maternal deaths happen in Nigeria. Total number of maternal deaths in 2015 in the 46 most developed countries was 1700, resulting in a maternal mortality ratio of 12 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Given the state of the economy in the low and middle-income countries, Nigeria, like most of the other countries lack the resources (material, manpower and financial) require for optimal newborn care services. Newborn respiratory distress affects almost half of newborns. It is a major cause of neonatal admissions and has a high mortality rate. Many of its significant risk factors and etiologies are preventable. Adequate follow-up of pregnant women and during labor are of great necessity for early detection of risk factors and timely intervention in order to prevent the occurrence of neonatal respiratory distress.


Neonatal respiratory distress, Epidemiology, Maternal mortality ratio, RDS

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