DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20202600

The profile of erythrocyte enlargement due to imported cases of Plasmodium vivax infection: its impact to the patient and the community

Forman E. Siagian, Derilandry Isham, Ronny ., Muhammad Alfarabi, Sudung Nainggolan, Ekarini Daroedono, Silphia Novelyn, Ani Oranda Panjaitan, Urip Susiantoro, Melsipa Siregar, Fitri Boru Naibaho

Abstract


Background: Imported cases of malarial vivax also induce erythrocyte enlargement. The size of enlargement depend on the size of the parasite inside the cells. The aim of the study was to examine 20 slides of positive malaria vivax and seek for erythrocyte infected malaria and measure the size of enlarged cells and its shape. As a comparison, a number of normal erythrocyte also evaluated for its size and shape.

Methods: This simple cross sectional design of microscope based study was conducted in Parasitology lab, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Kristen Indonesia, Jakarta-Indonesia, from January to June of 2019. All data collected and further processed using SPSS™.

Results: A total number of 982 erythrocyte infected with P. vivax were examined individually.  Those number consist of 243 immature trophozoite, 231 mature trophozoite, 251 micro-gametocyte, and 257 macrogametocyte. As a comparison also being examined 70 normal erythrocyte. Each erythrocyte infected with malaria vivax parasite enlarge to some extent, had irregular shape and the size varied based on the stage of the parasite inside the cells.

Discussion: This enlarged erythrocyte is prone to cell sequestration and lysis, a condition that leads to anemia. Anemia affect not just the host but also the community. Proper management of malaria will reduce the burden to the community.

Conclusions: Enlarged infected erythrocyte due to malaria vivax can cause anemia with effect to the host and also to the community.


Keywords


Anemia, Community, Microscopy, Blood, Parasite, Red blood cells, Size

Full Text:

PDF

References


Talapko J, Škrlec I, Alebić T, Jukić M, Včev A. Malaria: the past and the present. microorganisms. Microorganism. 2019;7(6):179.

Chaudhury A, Venkataramana B. Plasmodium knowlesi: the fifth malaria parasite. J Clin Sci Res. 2017;6:171-8.

Douglas NM, Anstey NM, Buffet PA, Poespoprodjo JR, Yeo TW, White NJ, et al. The anaemia of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Malar J. 2012;11:135.

Elyazar IR, Hay SI, Baird JK. Malaria distribution, prevalence, drug resistance and control in Indonesia. Adv Parasitol. 2011;74:41-175.

Sitohang V, Sariwati E, Fajariyani SB, Hwang D, Kurnia B, Hapsari RK, et al. Malaria elimination in Indonesia: halfway there. Lancet. 2018;6(6):604-6.

Lederman ER, Sutanto I, Wibudi A, Maguire JD. Imported malaria in Jakarta, Indonesia: passive surveillance of returned travelers and military members postdeployment. J Travel Med. 2006;13(3):153-60.

Kotepui M, Kotepui KU, Milanez GD. Prevalence and risk factors related to poor outcome of patients with severe Plasmodium vivax infection: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and analysis of case reports. BMC Infect Dis. 2020;20:363.

Handayani S, Chiu DT, Tjitra E. High deformability of Plasmodium vivax-infected red blood cells under microfluidic conditions. J Infect Dis. 2009;199(3):445-50.

Sherling ES, Ooij C. Host cell remodeling by pathogens: the exomembrane system in Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2016;40(5):701-21.

Beers EJ, Wijk R. Red blood cell biochemistry and physiology. In: Lazarus H., Schmaier A. (eds) Concise Guide to Hematology. Springer; 2019.

Rogers S, Lew VL. Changes in the homeostasis of human red blood cells during capillary transits. Biorxiv. Available at https:// doi.org/ 10.1101/ 2020.03.07.981787. Accessed on 12 January 2020.

Zouache M, Eames I, Klettner C. Form, shape and function: segmented blood flow in the choriocapillaris. Sci Rep. 2016;6:35754.

Huisjes R, Bogdanova A, Solinge WW, Schiffelers RM, Kaestner L, Wijk R. Squeezing for life – properties of red blood cell deformability. Frontiers Physiol. 2018;9:656.

Pretini V, Koenen MH, Kaestner L, Fens MHAM, Schiffelers RM, Bartels M, Wijk R. Red blood cells: chasing interactions. Front Physiol. 2019;10:945.

McMahon TJ. Red blood cell deformability, vasoactive mediators, and adhesion. Frontiers Physiol. 2019;10:14-7.

Mohandas N, An X. Malaria and human red blood cells. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2012;201(4):593-8.

McCullough J. RBCs as targets of infection. Hematol Am Soc Hematol Educ Progr. 2014;1:404-9.

Pathak VA, Ghosh K. Erythropoiesis in Malaria infections and factors modifying the erythropoietic response. Anemia. 2016;93:109-15.

Kim J, Lee HY, Shin S. Advances in the measurement of red blood cell deformability: a brief review. J Cellular Biotech. 2015;1:63-79.

Deroost K, Pham TT, Opdenakker G, Steen PE. The immunological balance between host and parasite in malaria. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2016;40(2):208-57.

Souza MC, Padua AT, Henriques MDD. Multiple organ dysfunction during severe malaria: the role of the inflammatory response. 2016;10:57-72.

Lelliott PM, McMorran BJ, Foote SJ. The influence of host genetics on erythrocytes and malaria infection: is there therapeutic potential? Malar J. 2015;14:289.

Crompton PD, Moebius J, Portugal S, Waisberg M, Hart G, Garver LS, et al. Malaria immunity in man and mosquito: insights into unsolved mysteries of a deadly infectious disease. Annu Rev Immunol. 2014;32:157-87.

Muriuki JM, Mentzer A, Kimita W, Ndungu FM. Iron status and associated malaria risk among African children. Clin Infect Dis. 2018;68(11):10.

Kassebaum NJ, Naghavi M, Hanson SW, Jasrasaria R, Johns N, Lozano R, et al. A systematic analysis of global anemia burden from 1990 to 2010. Blood. 2013;123(5):10.

White NJ. Anaemia and malaria. Malar J. 2018;17:371.

Kotepui M, Phunphuech B, Phiwklam N, Chupeerach C, Duangmano S. Effect of malarial infection on haematological parameters in population near Thailand-Myanmar border. Malar J. 2014;13:218.

Selvaraj P, Wenger EA, Gerardin, J. Seasonality and heterogeneity of malaria transmission determine success of interventions in high-endemic settings: a modeling study. BMC Infect Dis. 2018;18:413.

Sachs J, Malaney P. The economic and social burden of malaria. Nature. 2002;415:680-5.