Menstrual hygiene among married women: a hospital based cross-sectional study in an urban slum of Mumbai, India
Keywords:STI/RTI, menstrual hygiene, Reuse cloth
Background: Reproductive tract an infection which has become a silent epidemic that devastates women’s life is closely interrelated with poor menstrual hygiene. The aim and objective of the study was to know the pattern of various menstrual hygiene practices and its association with STI/RTI among married females.
Methods:A cross sectional study was carried out in STI/RTI Clinic of Urban Health Centre, Shivaji Nagar, Govandi, Mumbai, involving total 273 married females who attended OPD from January to March 2012. Patients were interviewed on the basis of pretested and preformed questionnaire. Confirmation of STI/RTIs was based on the symptoms as well as disease specific laboratory investigations.
Results: About 35 (79.5%) females presented with STI/RTI who were practicing sex during menstruation. Problem of STI/RTI was found less in 143 (60.9%) those practicing shaving of pubic hair. Other personal hygiene practices during menses like washing genitals with soap and water, taking bath during menses were found to be helpful in reducing these infections. STI/RTIs were low in 32 (55.7%) females who were using disposable pads as compared to 95 (71.4%) females who were using reuse cloth during menses. Cleaning practices of reuse cloth were significantly associated with STI/RTI.
Conclusions:The menstrual hygiene practices and its frequency associated with STI/RTI.
Bansal KM, Singh K, Bhatnagar S. Prevalence of lower RTI among married females in the reproductive age group (15- 45 yrs). Health Popul Perspect Issues. 2001;24:157-63.
Ramaswamy D. Indian Institute Of Biotechnology In Collaboration With Soothe Healthcare Published A Review Article Relation Between Poor Menstrual Practices And Cervical Cancer. 2015;10:57.
Demba E, Morison L, van der Loeff MS, Awasana AA, Gooding E, Bailey R, et al. Bacterial vaginosis, vaginal flora patterns and vaginal hygiene practices in patients presenting with vaginal discharge syndrome in the Gambia, West Africa. BMC Infect Dis. 2005;5:12.
Adolescents in India. A Profile. World Health Organization. 2003. Available at: http://www.whoindia.org/LinkFiles/Adolescent_Health_and_Development_(AHD)_UNFPA_Country_Report.pdf. Accessed on August 12, 2015.
Fernandez M. Breaking the silence: Menstrual Hygiene Management in Rural India- Wateraid India 2008. Accessed on 14 October. 2015;1:58.
Wasserheit JN. The significance and scope of reproductive tract infections among Third World women. Suppl Int J Gynecol Obstet. 1989;3:145-68.
Eschenbach DA, Buchanan TM, Pollok HM. Polymicrobial etiology of acute pelvic inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med. 1975;293:166-17
Raufu A. Unsafe abortion causes 20,000 deaths a year in Nigeria. BMJ. 2003;326(7382):225.
Sri Devi B, Swarnalatha N. Prevalence of STI/RTI among reproductive age women(15-49 years) in urban slums of Tirupati town, Andhra Pradesh, Health and Population Perspectives and Issues. 2007;30(1):56-70.
Parashar A, Gupta BP, Bhardwaj AK, Sarin R. Prevalence of RTIs among women of reproductive age group in Shimla City. Indian J of Community Medicine March. 2006;31(1):112-17.
Zeng-yu W. Study on Relationship between Reproductive tract Infection and Personal Hygiene Behaviours among vulnerable married women in Shanghai. Reproduction and Contraception. 2003;14(3):181-8.
Younis N, Khattab H, Zurake H, el-Mouelhy M, Amin MF, Faraq AM. A community study of gynecological and related morbidities in rural Egypt. Studies in Family Planning. 1993;24(3):175-86.