Prevalence of disability using rapid assessment of disability toolkit among adult residents of rural Delhi, India

Nitesh Chauhan, Gagan Deep Kaur, Samreen Khan


Background: India is committed to ensure development inclusive of persons with disability. Recently a sensitive and specific Rapid Assessment of Disability toolkit has been developed to assess the disability prevalence by United Nations Convention on Disability. Studies using this toolkit in India are inadequate leading to paucity of data regarding disability. The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of disability among adults of a rural area of Delhi.

Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional study, carried out among adults of Fatehpur Beri village, Delhi. A total of 660 participants were assessed using the rapid assessment of disability toolkit. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate the prevalence, Chi-square and Fischer’s exact test was used for bivariate analysis.

Results: The prevalence of disability was found to be 8.6% and was similar among both genders. A higher proportion of persons with disability belonged to lower socioeconomic class, were likely to be unmarried, widow/widower, separated/divorced also either illiterate or had studied till primary school only and more often unemployed as compared those without disability.

Conclusions: Persons with disability had a significantly lower educational, occupational, socioeconomic attainment. Large scale studies are needed to provide data for planning inclusive development.


Disability, Persons with disability, Rapid assessment of disability

Full Text:



Venkata S. Murthy G. Challenges in accessing health care for people with disability in the South Asian context: a review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15:2366.

Ramachandra SS, Allagh KP, Kumar H, Grills N, Marella M, Pant H, et al. Prevalence of disability among adults using rapid assessment of disability tool in a rural district of South India. Disability Health J. 2016;9(4):624-31.

Ministry of Economics and Statistics. Disability in India- a statistical profile. Government of India c2011 (updated 2011). Available at: Accessed on 15 April 2018.

Das SK. A Brief scanning on performance of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act in Assam, India. Amer J Rural Dev. 2013;1(3):49-61.

Novotný J, Kubelková J, Joseph V. A multi‐dimensional analysis of the impacts of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme: a tale from Tamil Nadu. Singapore J Trop Geog. 2013;34(3):322-41.

Marella M, Huq NL, Devine A, Baker SM, Quaiyum MA, Keeffe JE. Prevalence and correlates of disability in Bogra district of Bangladesh using the rapid assessment of disability survey. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:867.

Singh T, Sharma S, Nagesh S. Socio-economic status scales updated for 2017. Int J Res Med Sci. 2017;5:3264-7.

Marella M, Devine A, Armecin GF, Zayas J, Marco MJ, Vaughan C. Rapid assessment of disability in the Philippines: understanding prevalence, well-being, and access to the community for people with disabilities to inform the W-DARE project. Popul Health Metr. 2016;14:26.

Gupta S, Yadav R, Malhotra AK. Assessment of physical disability using Barthel index among elderly of rural areas of district Jhansi (U.P), India. J Family Med Prim Care. 2016;5(4):853-7.

Gupta P, Mani K, Rai SK, Nongkynrih B, Gupta SK. Functional disability among elderly persons in a rural area of Haryana. Indian J Public Health. 2014;58(1):11-6.

Velayutham B, Kangusamy B, Mehendale S. Prevalence of disability in Tamil Nadu, India. Nat Med J India. 2017;30(3):125-30.

Kumar SG, Das A, Bhandary PV, Soans SJ, Kumar HN, Kotian MS. Prevalence and pattern of mental disability using Indian disability evaluation assessment scale in a rural community of Karnataka. Indian J Psychiatr. 2008;50(1):21-3.

Hosseinpoor AR, Bergen N, Kostanjsek N, Kowal P, Officer A, Chatterji S. Socio-demographic patterns of disability among older adult populations of low-income and middle-income countries: results from World Health Survey. Int J Public Health. 2016;61(3):337-45.

Maierhofer S, Almazan-Isla J, Alcalde-Cabero E, de Pedro-Cuesta J. Prevalence and features of ICF-disability in Spain as captured by the 2008 National Disability Survey. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:897.

Islam FM, Bhowmik JL, Islam SZ, Renzaho AM, Hiller JE. Factors associated with disability in rural Bangladesh: Bangladesh population-based diabetes and eye study (BPDES). PloS one. 2016;11(12):e0165625.

Saikia N, Bora JK, Jasilionis D, Shkolnikov VM. Disability divides in India: evidence from the 2011 Census. PloS One. 2016;11(8):e0159809.

Bora JK, Saikia N. Gender differentials in self-rated health and self-reported disability among adults in India. PloS One. 2015;10(11):e0141953.

Castro SS, Cesar CL, Carandina L, Barros MB, Alves MC, Goldbaum M. Visual, hearing, and physical disability: prevalence and associated factors in a population-based study. Cad Saude Publica. 2008;24(8):1773-82.

Velayutham B, Kangusamy B, Joshua V, Mehendale S. The prevalence of disability in elderly in India - Analysis of 2011 census data. Disabil Health J. 2016;9(4):584-92.

Kumar SG, Premarajan KC, Kattimani S, Kar SS. Epidemiology of mental disability using Indian disability evaluation assessment scale among general population in an urban area of Puducherry, India. J Postgrad Med. 2018;64(1):16-22.

Marmamula S, Narsaiah S, Shekhar K, Khanna RC, Rao GN. Visual impairment in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh: Andhra Pradesh- rapid assessment of visual impairment (AP-RAVI) project. PloS One. 2013;8(7):e70120.

Ahmad NA, Kasim MN, Mahmud NA, Yusof MY, Othman S, Chan YY, et al. Prevalence and determinants of disability among adults in Malaysia: results from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(1):756.

Alhajj T, Wang L, Wheeler K, Zhao W, Sun Y, Stallones L, et al. Prevalence of disability among adolescents and adults in rural China. Disabil Health J. 2010;3(4):282-8.

Grills N, Singh L, Pant H, Varghese J, Murthy GV, Hoq M, et al. Access to services and barriers faced by people with disabilities: a quantitative Survey. Disability, CBR and inclusive development. Disabil Rehabil J. 2017;22;28(2):23-44.

Venkatorao T, Ezhil R, Jabbar S, Ramakrishnan R. Prevalence of disability and handicaps in geriatric population in rural south India. Indian J Public Health. 2005;49(1):11-7.

Ganesh KS, Das A, Shashi JS. Epidemiology of disability in a rural community of Karnataka. Indian J Public Health. 2008;52(3):125-9.

Chi WC, Chang KH, Escorpizo R, Yen CF, Liao HF, Chang FH, et al. Measuring disability and its predicting factors in a large database in Taiwan using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Int J Eviron Res Public Health. 2014;11(12):12148-61.

Mahesh M, Abdin E, Vaingankar JA, Picco L, Jeyagurunathan A, Shafie SB, et al. Disability in Singapore's elderly population. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2016;45(7):284-96.

Gudlavalleti MV, John N, Allagh K, Sagar J, Kamalakannan S, Ramachandra SS, et al. Access to health care and employment status of people with disabilities in South India, the SIDE (South India Disability Evidence) study. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:1125.

Naraharisetti R, Castro MC. Factors associated with persons with disability employment in India: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2016;16(1):1063.