A study of prevalence of goiter among school children in Kolar

Varsha R. Mokhasi, Muninarayana C., Shashidhar K. N.


Background: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide leading to learning disabilities and psychomotor impairment. Nearly 266 million school children worldwide have insufficient iodine intake. IDD was found to be a public health problem in 47 countries. Since the information on current prevalence of goiter in Kolar was not available, the present study was undertaken.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among school children aged 6-12 years in Kolar taluk. A total of 650 children (325 urban and 325 rural) were selected for goiter examination by multistage random cluster sampling technique. A total of 150 children were tested for the median urinary concentration and 150 salt samples were tested from the households of the study population.

Results: The total goiter rate was 6.6% among primary school children aged 6-12 years with a significant difference between ages. As the age increased the goiter prevalence also increased. The median urinary iodine excretion level was found to be 137 µg/l and 92.7% salt samples had >15 ppm iodine content.

Conclusions: Present study shows mild goiter prevalence in primary school children in Kolar and an adequate iodine content of salt and urine.



Goiter, Prevalence, IDD, Urinary iodine

Full Text:



Directorate General of Health Services Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India; 2006. National Rural Health Mission IDD and Nutrition Cell. Revised Policy Guidelines On National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme. Available at: /LinkFiles/Nutrition_Revised_Policy_Guidelines_On_NIDDCP.pdf. Accessed on 1 July 2019.

Pandav CS, Yadav K, Srivastava R, Pandav R, Karmarkar MG. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India. Indian J Med Res. 2013;138:418-33.

ICCIDD, UNICEF, WHO. Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination: a guide for programme managers. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2007.

Status Report on National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme in Southern States. Available at: NIDDCPSouthernstates2. Accessed on 1 July 2019.

UNICEF. Sustainable Elimination of Iodine Deficiency-Progress since the 1990 World Summit for Children. New York: Nutrition Section, Programme Division. United Nations Plaza; 2008.

Kamath R, Bhat V, Rao RSP, Acharya D, Kapil U, Kotian MS, et al. Prevalence of Goitre among School Children in Belgaum District. Indian J Pediatr. 2009;76:825-8.

Status Report on National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme in Southern States. Available at: NIDDCPSouthernstates2. htm). Accessed on 30 September 2019.

Sridhar PV, Kamala CS. Status and Prevalence of Goitre in School Going Children in Rural Area.J Clin Diagn Res. 2014;8(8):15-7.

Joshi DC, Mishra VN, Bhatnagar M, Singh RB, Garg SK, Chopra H. Socioeconomic factors and prevalence of endemic goiter. Indian J Public Health. 1993;37:48-53.

El-Sayed NA, Mahfouz AA, Nofal L, Ismail HM, Gad A, Zeid HA. Iodine deficiency disorders among school children in upper Egypt: an epidemiologic study. J Trop Pediatr. 1998;44:270-4.

Dodd NS, Samuel AM. Iodine deficiency in adolescents from Bombay slums. Natl Med J India. 1993;6(3):110-3.

Kapil U, Singh J, Prakash R, Sundaresan S, Ramachandra S, Tandon M. Assessment of iodine deficiency in selected blocks of east and west Champaran districts of Bihar. Indian Pediatr. 1997;34:1087-91.

Sareen N, Kapil U, Nambiar V, Pandey RM, Khenduja P. Iodine nutritional status in Uttarakhand State, India. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2016;20(2):171-6.

Lohiya A, Yadav K, Kant S, Kumar R, Pandav C. Prevalence of iodine deficiency among adult population residing in Rural Ballabgarh, district Faridabad, Haryana. Indian J Public Health. 2015;59(4):314.

Karmarkar MG, Deo MG, Kochupillai N, Ramalingaswami V. Pathophysiology of Himalayan endemic goiter. Am J Clin Nutr. 1974;27:96-103.

Chandra AK, Singh LH, Debnath A, Tripathy S, Khanam J. Dietary supplies of iodine and thiocyanate in the aetiology of endemic goitre in Imphal East district of Manipur, North East India. Indian J Med Res. 2008;128:601-5.

Chandra AK, Tripathy S, Ghosh D, Debnath A, Mukhopadhyay S. Iodine nutritional status and prevalence of goitre in Sundarban delta of South 24-Parganas, West Bengal. Indian J Med Res. 2005;122:419-24.

Singh LH, Haobam, Arke L, Chandra AK. Prevalence of Endemic Goiter in School Children during Post Salt Iodization Period in Churachanpur District, Manipur, India. Int J Med Health Sci. 2015;4:20-3.

Khan SMS, Mahjabeen R, Masoodi MA, Kauser J, Nabi S. Prevalence of goiter among Primary school children of Kulgam district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Acad Med J India. 2014;2:18-21.

Chaudhary C, Pathak R, Ahluwalia SK, Goel RKD, Devgan S. Iodine deficiency disorder in children aged 6-12 years of Ambala, Haryana. Indian Pediatr. 2013;50(6):587-9.

Shah H, Shah V, Makwana N, Unadkat S, Yadav S. Goiter prevalence and current iodine deficiency status among school age children years after the universal salt iodization in Jamnagar district, India. Thyroid Res. 2012;9(2):40.

Amin D, Rathod S, Doshi V, Singh MP. Changing Prevalence of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Amreli District, Gujarat, India. Natl J Integr Res Med. 2011;2(3):77-80.

Biswas AB, Chakraborty I, Das DK, Roy RN, Mukhopadhyay S, Chatterjee S. Iodine deficiency disorders among school children of Birbhum, West Bengal. Curr Sci. 2004;87(1):78-80.

Kapil U. Successful efforts toward elimination iodine deficiency disorders in India. Indian J Community Med. 2010;35:455-68.

Singh MB, Marwal R, Lakshminarayana J. Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders in school aged children in Jodhpur dictrict of Rajasthan. J Hum Ecol. 2010;32(2):79-83.

Girma K, Nibret E, Gedefaw M. The status of iodine nutrition and iodine deficiency disorders among school children in Metekel Zone, northwest Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sci. 2014;24(2):109-16.