DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20193089

Epidemiological study of obesity and overweight among adolescents in schools in district Ghaziabad

Susmita Thakur, Narendra Singh, Mitasha Singh

Abstract


Background: Developing countries are experiencing an epidemic of obesity and overweight. Adolescence is the stage when the lifestyle behavior sets in and decides the future pattern of health. The objective was to study the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among school going adolescents of district Ghaziabad.

Methods: A school based cross sectional survey was conducted in district Ghaziabad. Adolescents (10-19 years) from both urban and rural government and private schools were included. Multistage sampling technique was used to study 1128 study population. Anthropometry and a structured questionnaire were used as study tool.

Results: In urban area, the proportion of underweight students in government schools (20.9%) was significantly more than the private school (13.8%) whereas the number of overweight students in private school (18.2%) was significantly more than the government schools (10.3%). In rural area underweight students in government school (30.5%) was significantly more than the private school (21.3%) whereas the number of overweight students in private school (11.3%) was significantly more than the government school (3.2%). Obesity was significantly associated with the area of residence, type of school, consumption of carbonated drinks, fast foods and decreased physical activity.

Conclusions: An overall higher prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in urban areas and increasing trend in rural areas too alarm us to focus on the modifiable risk factors.

 


Keywords


School going adolescents, Physical inactivity, Obesity, Fast food

Full Text:

PDF

References


WHO. Obesity and overweight, Fact sheet no 311. 2014.

Hubert HB, Feinleib M, McNamara PM, Castelli WP. Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: a 26- year follow-up of participants in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 1983;67(5):968.

Must A, Jacques PF, Dallal GE, Bajema CJ, Dietz WH. Long-term morbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents. A follow-up of the Harvard Growth Study of 1922 to 1935. N Engl J Med. 1992;327(19):1350.

Bray GA. The Underlying Basis for Obesity: Relationship to Cancer. J Nutr. 2002;132(11):3451-5.

WHO. Physical inactivity: a global public health problem. World Health Organization, Geneva. 2008.

Census Ghaziabad district. Available at: https://www.census2011.co.in/census/district/511-ghaziabad.html. Accessed on 3 September 2016.

Ranjani H, Mehreen TS, Pradeepa R, Anjana RM, Garg R, Anand K, et al. Epidemiology of childhood overweight & obesity in India: A systematic review. Indian J Med Res. 2016;143(2):160-74.

WHO. STEPS Surveillance. part3 Training and Practical Guides. Section3: Guide to physical Measurement 2008. Available at: http//www. who.int/chp/steps/section%204%20Step%202%20Physical%20Measurements.pdf. Accessed on 3 August 2018.

Tharkar S, Viswanathan V. Impact of socioeconomic status on prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in urban India. The Open Obes J. 2009;1:9-14.

Currie C, Roberts C, Morgan A, Smith R, Settertobulte W, Samdal O, et al. Young people's health in context. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HSBC) study: International report from the 2001/2002 survey. Europe: WHO; 2004. Available at: http://www.euro.who.int/en/ publications/abstracts/young-peoples-health-in-context.-health-behaviour-in-school-aged-children-hbsc-study-international-report-from-the-20012002-survey. Accessed on 3 August 2018.

Deka MK, Malhotra AK, Yadav R, Gupta S. Dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among urban adolescents. J Family Med Prim Care. 2015;4:364–8.

Singhal N, Misra A, Shah P, Gulati S. Effects of controlled school-based multi component model of nutrition and lifestyle interventionson behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian Indian adolescents in North India. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64(4):364-73.

Delhi Diabetes Research Center (DDRC) Half of Delhi’s school children drink soft drinks daily. 2011.

Papandreou D, Andreou E, Heraclides A, Rousso I. Is beverage intake related to overweight and obesity in school children? Hippokratia. 2013;17(1):42–6.

Ebbeling CB, Feldman HA, Osganian SK, Chomitz VR, Ellenbogen SJ, Ludwig DS. Effect of decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on body weight in adolescents:A randomized, controlled pilot study. Pediatrics 2006;117(3):673-80.

French SA, Story M, NeumarkSztainer D, Fulkerson JA, Hannan P. Fast food restaurant use among adolescents: Associations with nutrient intake, food choices and behavioral and psychological variables. Int J Obes. 2001;25(12):1823-33.

Monteiro CA, Moubarac JC, Cannon G, Ng SW, Popkin B. Ultra-processed products are becoming dominant in the global food system. Obes Rev. 2013;14:21–8.

Arena R, Guazzi M, Lianov L, Whitsel L, Berra K, Lavie CJ, et al. Healthy lifestyle interventions to combat noncommunicable disease-a novel nonhierarchical connectivity model for key stakeholders: a policy statement from the American Heart Association, European Society of Cardiology, European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, and American College of Preventive Medicine. Eur Heart J. 2015;36(31):2097-109.

Vasconcellos F, Seabra A, Katzmarzyk PT, Kraemer-Aguiar LG, Bouskela E, Farinatti P. Physical Activity in overweight and obese adolescents: systematic review of the effects on physical fitness components and cardiovascular risk factors. Sports Med. 2014;44(8):1139-52.

Hallal PC, Wells JCK, Reichert FF, Anselmi L, Victora CG. Early determinants of physical activity in adolescence: prospective birth cohort study. BMJ. 2006;332:1002-7.

El-Bayoumy I, Shady I, Lotfy H. Prevalence of obesity among adolescents (10 to 14 years) in Kuwait. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2009;21(2):153-9.

Kumar S, Mahabalaraju D, Anuroopa MS. Prevalence of obesity and its influencing factors among affluent school children of Davangere city. Indian J Community Med. 2007;32(1):15-7.

Boyce T. The media and obesity. Obes Rev. 2007;8(1):201–5.

Kruger R, Kruger HS, Macintyre UE. The determinants of overweight and obesity among 10- to 15-year-old schoolchildren in the North West Province, South Africa - the THUSA BANA (Transition and Health during Urbanisation of South Africans; BANA, children) study. Public Health Nutr. 2006;9(3):351-8.

Alam AA. Obesity among female school children in North West Riyadh in relation to affluent lifestyle. Saudi Med J. 2008;29(8):1139-44.

Thasanasuwan W, Srichan W, Kijboonchoo K, Yamborisut U, Wimonpeerapattana W, Rojroongwasinkul N, et al. Low sleeping time, high tv viewing time, and physical inactivity in school are risk factors for obesity in pre-adolescent Thai children. J Med Assoc Thailand. 2016;99(3):314-21.