Knowledge attitudes and practices about diabetes and diabetic retinopathy among diabetic retinopathy patients at a tertiary care hospital in Goa

Tanvi Poy Raiturcar, Apika K. Sawant, Shreya S. Lotliker, Jagadish A. Cacodcar, Preksha P. Vernekar


Background: Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common complication of diabetes with a prevalence of 7.3-25%. There have been several studies done in India to assess the knowledge and awareness on diabetes and diabetic retinopathy among patients with diabetes, however very few studies assessed knowledge, awareness and practices amongst patients with diabetic retinopathy.4-7 Besides, no such study was undertaken at Goa Medical College.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 consecutive diabetic retinopathy patients attending ophthalmology out-patient department (OPD) at Goa Medical College and Hospital. The patients were administered a pre-tested proforma to assess their level of awareness and attitudes and practices towards diabetes and diabetic retinopathy. Data was entered in Microsoft excel 2010; analysed using the SPSS version 22. Chi-square test was used as test of significance.

Results: In our study, 58% were aware of the symptoms of diabetes. 15% were aware of the multiple complications. 35% had knowledge about only one test for detecting diabetes i.e. fasting blood sugar level. 22% had never heard about HbA1c. 49% were not aware that they had diabetic retinopathy. 76% felt it is important to continue medications even if blood sugar levels were normal. 62% were aware of the importance of exercise. 71% took their medications regularly, 72% checked their blood sugar regularly. There was a significant association between educational status and awareness and practices towards diabetes.

Conclusions: The diabetic retinopathy patients in our study had a fair knowledge about diabetes and diabetic retinopathy.



Diabetes mellitus, Diabetic retinopathy, KAP

Full Text:



International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas. 7th edn. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation; 2015.

Dandona L, Dandona R, Naduvilath TJ, Mc Carty, Rao GN. Population based assessment of diabetic retinopathy in South Indian population. Br J Ophthalmol.1999;83(8):937-40.

Jonas JB, Nangia V, Khare A, Matin A, Bhojwani K, Kulkarni M. Prevalence and associated factors of diabetic retinopathy in rural Central India. Diabetes care. 2013;36(5):69.

Srinivasan NK, John D, Rebekah G, Kujur ES, Paul P, John SS. Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy: KAP among diabetes patients in a tertiary care centre. J Clin Diag Res. 2017; 11(7):1-7.

Hussain R, Rajesh B, Giridhar A, Gopalakrishnan M, Sadasivan S, James J, et al. Knowledge and attitudes about diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in suburban population of a South Indian state and its practice among patients with diabetes mellitus: A population based study. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2016;64(4):272-6.

Rani PK, Raman R, Subramani S, Perumal G, Kumaramanickavel G, Sharma T. Knowledge of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy among rural population in India and its influence on knowledge of diabetic retinopathy on attitude and practice. Rural and remote health. 2008;8(3):838.

Koshy J, Varghese DL, Mathew T, Kaur G, Thomas S, Bhatti SM. Study on KAP of ocular complications due to diabetes among type 2 diabetes visiting a tertiary teaching hospital. Indian J Community health. 2012;24:27-31.

Mohan D, Raj D, Shantirani CS. Awareness and knowledge of diabetes in Chennai- the Chennai urban rural epidemiology study [CURES-9]. J Assoc Physicians India. 2005;53:283-7.

World Health Organization (WHO). Use of Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) in the Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus Abbreviated Report of a WHO Consultation. Geneva: WHO; 2011.

Gulabani M, Joshi M, Isaac R. Knowledge of diabetes, its treatment and complications amongst diabetic patients in a tertiary care hospital. Indian J Community Med. 2008;33:204-6.

Zeb A, Khan M, Wahab F, Khan MT, Nawaz A, Faraz N. Knowledge Attitude and Practice of Diet and Exercise among Diabetic Patients for Normal Plasma Glucose Level. International J Sci Res Publications. 2017;7(1).

Dinesh PV, Kulkarni AG, Gangadhar NK. Knowledge and self-care practices regarding diabetes among patients with type 2 diabetes in rural Sullia, Karnataka: A community based, cross-sectional study. J Family Med and primary care. 2016;5(4):847-52.

Gopichandran V, Lyndon S, Angel MK, Manayalil BP, Blessy KR, Alex RG, et al. Diabetes self-care activities: a community based survey in urban Southern India. Natl Med J India. 2012;25(1):14-7.