DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20185251

A comparative study on vaccination default rates among children aged 9-24 months attending a static immunization clinic in urban and rural area of Bangalore

Jayanthi Srikanth, Pankaj Kumar, Kavya G. Upadhya, Pushpa Rajanna

Abstract


Background: Immunization contributes significantly to the achievement of millennium development goal number 4 and is one of the eight elements of primary health care. Effective utilization of immunization services is associated with reduced infections in young children with immature immune system and improved child health outcome. The objectives of the study were to compare the default rates for vaccine doses in immunization schedule; to study the factors responsible for default; to describe the socio-demographic profile of study subjects.

Methods: An observational study was conducted in the urban and rural Primary health centre on immunization days for 3 months. The study subjects were children aged (9-24) months attending immunization clinics. Their care givers were interviewed regarding socio-demographic profile and causes for default. Sample size calculated was 184 (92) each from urban and rural clinic).

Results: Among 184 care givers interviewed, mean age of study subjects was 14.9±4.6 months in urban & 14.6±4.9 months in rural clinic. Default rates for vaccination were 5.4% (birth dose), 7.6% (6th wk.) both in urban & rural clinic. However, for further doses i.e., 10th week, 14th week, 9 months and 18 months the default rates were slightly higher in rural compared to urban clinic. Commonest reason for default was mother not aware that child had missed dose (urban 52.2% and rural 42.3%) followed by child being sick (urban 26.6% and rural 30.4%).

Conclusions: The overall default rate was found to be very high which is a serious concern and need to be addressed in order to prevent eventual dropouts.


Keywords


Immunization, Default, Static immunization clinic

Full Text:

PDF

References


Available at: http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/immunization-coverage. Accessed on 10th September 2017.

Shrivastwa N, Gillespie BW, Kolenic GE, Lepkowski JM, Boulton ML. Predictors of Vaccination in India for Children Aged 12–36 Months. Am J Prev Med. 2015;49(6):1–10.

Shrestha S, Shrestha M, Wagle RR, Bhandari G. Predictors of incompletion of immunization among children residing in the slums of Kathmandu valley, Nepal: a case-control study. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:970.

Available at: http://www.missionindradhanush.in/ about.html. Accessed on 10 January 2018.

National Operational Guidelines 2017- Measles Rubella Vaccine; Available at http://www.searo. who.int/india/topics/measles/measles_rubella_vaccine_guidelines.pdf?ua=1. Accessed on 13 September 2017.

WHO Module 6 of Immunization in practice. Available at: http://www.who.int/immunization/ documents/IIP2014Mod6_19may.pdf. Accessed on 13th September 2017.

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare India Fact Sheet. Available at: http://rchiips.org/NFHS/pdf/ NFHS4/India.pdf. Accessed on 13 September 2017.

Singh PK, Shengelia B, Gupta N, Moussavi S, Tandon A. Trends in Child Immunization across Geographical Regions in India: Focus on Urban-Rural and Gender Differentials. Bhutta ZA, editor. PLoS One. 2013;8(9):e73102.

Okolo S, Adeleke O, Chukwu G, Egbuaba N, Hassan A, Onwuanaku C. Immunization and Nutritional Status Survey of Children in selected Rural Communities of Sokoto State. Niger J Paediatr. 2005;30(4):123–7.

Noronha E, Shah HK. A study of vaccination delay among under-five attendees at an immunisation clinic in a rural area of Goa. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2018;5:1628-33.

Onyiriuka AN. Vaccination default rates among children attending a static immunization clinic in Benin City, Nigeria. JMBR. 2005;4(1):71-7.