Bullying and being bullied: prevalence and psychosocial outcomes among school going adolescents of Rohtak
Keywords:Bullying, Bullied, Adolescents, Depression
Background: Bullying is a problem which is commonly faced by so many school going children and adolescents usually in the form of nasty teasing, name-calling, threatening, physically hurting, exclusion from group, spreading false rumors etc. A victim of bullying is at increased risk of behavioural and emotional problems, depression, psychotic symptoms including anxiety, insecurity and poor school performance. The objectives of the study were to measure the prevalence of bullying behaviours among adolescents and to determine the effects of bullying and being bullied on psychosocial adjustment.
Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out from August, 2016 to February, 2017 among school going adolescents 11-18 yrs of age. A total of 300 students were chosen using multi stage sampling from ten schools of five community development blocks of Rohtak.
Results: Out of 300 participants 176 (58.7%) were male, 124 (41.3%) were female. 21.6% (65) students bullied other students, 19% (57) were being bullied. More boys reported bullying others and being victims of bullying.
Conclusions: The effects of being bullied are direct, pleiotropic and long- lasting with the worst effects for those who are both victims and bullies.
Mishna F. A Qualitative Study of Bullying from Multiple Perspectives. Children & Schools. 2004;26(4):234-47.
Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health. Who.int. 2017. Available at: http://www.who.int/ maternal_child_adolescent/topics/adolescence/dev/en/. Accessed on 24 July 2017.
Slonje R, Smith P. Cyberbullying: Another main type of bullying? Scandinavian J Psychol. 2008;49(2):147-54.
The Psychological Effects of Bullying on Kids & Teens. Mastersinpsychologyguide.com. 2017. Available at: http://mastersinpsychologyguide. com/articles/psychological-effects-bullying-kids-teens. Accessed on 24 July 2017.
King A, Wold B, Tudor-Smith C, Harel Y. The Health of Youth: A Cross-National Survey. Canada: WHO Library Cataloguing; 1994. WHO Regional Publications, European Series No. 69.
US Department of Education. 1999 Annual Report on School Safety. Washington, DC: US Dept of Education; 1999: 1–66.
Borg MG. The extent and nature of bullying among primary and secondary schoolchildren. Educ Res. 1999;41:137–53.
Kaltiala-Heino R, Rimpela M, Marttunen M, Rimpela A, Rantanen P. Bullying, depression, and suicidal ideation in Finnish adolescents: school survey. BMJ. 1999;319:348–51.
Menesini E, Eslea M, Smith PK, Genta ML, Giannetti E, Fonzi A, et al. Cross-national comparison of children’s attitudes towards bully/victim problems in school. Aggressive Behav. 1997;23:245–57.
Monks CP, Smith P. Definitions of bullying: Age differences in understanding of the term, and the role of experience. British J Developmental Psychol. 2006;24(4):801-21.
Underwood K. Sticks and stones and social exclusion: Aggression among girls and boys. In P. K. Smith & C. H. Hart (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of childhood social development; 2006: 533-548.
Spriggs A, Iannotti R, Nansel T, Haynie D. Adolescent Bullying Involvement and Perceived Family, Peer and School Relations: Commonalities and Differences Across Race/Ethnicity. J Adolescent Health. 2007;41(3):283-93.
Baly M, Cornell D, Lovegrove P. A longitudinal investigation of self-and peer reports of bullying victimization across middle school. Psychology in the Schools. 2014;51(3):217-40.
Solberg M, Olweus D. Prevalence estimation of school bullying with the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. Aggressive Behavior. 2003;29(3):239-68.
Isaacs J, Voeten M, Salmivalli C. Gender-specific or Common Classroom Norms? Examining the Contextual Moderators of the Risk for Victimization. Social Development. 2012;22(3):555-79.
Elsaesser C, Gorman-Smith D, Henry D. The role of the school environment in relational aggression and victimization. J Youth Adolescence. 2013;42:235-49.
Wang W, Vaillancourt T, Brittain HL, McDougall P. School climate, peer victimization, and academic achievement: Results from a multi-informant study. School Psychology Quarterly. 2104;29:360-77.
Ma X. Bullying in middle school: Individual and school characteristics of victims and offenders. School Effectiveness and School Improvement. 2002;13(1):63-89.
Shen J, Washington AL, Palmer LB. Effects of traditional and nontraditional forms of parental involvement on school-level achievement outcome: An HLM study using SASS 2007–2008. J Educ Res. 2014;107:326-7.