Types of upper and lower respiratory tract infection in pediatrics


  • Kholoud Abdullah Hothan Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Mohammed Ali Alawami Department of Emergency Medicine, Dammam Medical Complex, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
  • Eman Abdulrahman Baothman Department of Pediatrics, Al Aziziya Children Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Fatima Ali Alghanem College of Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
  • Diana Mohammed Al-Haddad College of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
  • Ruqyah Ibrahim Al Daerwish College of Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
  • Zainab Ahmed Albetiyan College of Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
  • Ghadeer Ali Alghanem College of Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
  • Khulood Abdullah Bayazeed College of Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
  • Ghadeer Ali Al Yusuf College of Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
  • Anwar Mohammed Aljurfi College of Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland




Respiratory, Infection, Children, Upper, Lower


The most prevalent diseases in infants and children, are respiratory infections including the common cold, acute rhinosinusitis, acute otitis media, flu-like illness, acute bronchitis, and pneumonia. Despite being mostly innocuous, they have a large negative impact on society and are a leading source of morbidity and mortality globally. They are further divided into two classes upper respiratory tract and lower respiratory tract infections. The purpose of this research is to review the available information about types of upper and lower respiratory tract infection in paediatrics. The common upper respiratory tract infections include acute pharyngitis which is usually self- limiting and benign and is mostly caused by viruses while inflammation of the mucosa of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity is a sign of acute rhinosinusitis. Common colds frequently come with uncomplicated rhinosinusitis, which does not have any clinically visible spread of the inflammation outside the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. A viral or bacterial infection of the middle ear causes acute otitis media. Bronchitis, bronchiolitis and pneumonia are lower respiratory infections common among children. More than one-third of children develop bronchiolitis in the first two years of life, which is the most common reason for hospitalization in the first year of life. The hospitalization rate for children has increased from 1% to 3% over the past 30 years while pneumonia is a significant contributor of morbidity and mortality among under 5 years children. Early diagnosis and prompt management can lead to better health outcomes among children.



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How to Cite

Hothan, K. A., Alawami, M. A., Baothman, E. A., Alghanem, F. A., Al-Haddad, D. M., Al Daerwish, R. I., Albetiyan, Z. A., Alghanem, G. A., Bayazeed, K. A., Yusuf, G. A. A., & Aljurfi, A. M. (2022). Types of upper and lower respiratory tract infection in pediatrics. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 9(12), 4689–4693. https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223231



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